Encyclopedia of Signaling Molecules

2018 Edition
| Editors: Sangdun Choi


Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67199-4_621


Historical Background

Gene expression is a fundamental part of cell biology as it initially produces an mRNA transcript that ultimately results in a functional protein. Within this process, gene transcription is a tightly controlled mechanism in cell nuclei through the action of specific DNA-binding transcription factors and an array of ancillary proteins known as co-activators or corepressors, depending on whether they act to stimulate or repress transcription. In general, most co-activators have histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity, which acts in part to loosen the association of positively charged histones with DNA, facilitating chromatin remodeling and recruitment of the transcriptional machinery. On the other hand, corepressors often recruit histone deacetylases (HDACs) or methyltransferases, which reinforce the structural integrity of the...

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhysiologyMcGill University McIntyre Medical Sciences BuildingMontréalCanada