Encyclopedia of Signaling Molecules

2018 Edition
| Editors: Sangdun Choi

Rac GTPase

  • Diamantis G. Konstantinidis
  • Theodosia A. KalfaEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67199-4_597


 Rac1: Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1; migration-inducing gene 5 protein (MIG5); RAS-like protein TC25

 Rac2: Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 2

 Rac3: Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 3

 RhoG: Ras homology growth-related; ARGH

Historical Background and Taxonomy

Rac GTPases comprise one of the eight subfamilies of the Rho (Ras homology) GTPases family, itself a subgroup of the Ras superfamily of small G proteins (Burridge and Wennerberg 2004). They were first identified as a substrate for the bacterial C3-like transferases that block Rho by ADP-ribosylation (hence their name, Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1–3), although the C3-like transferases act on Rac rather inefficiently. More effective are the large clostridial cytotoxins (with prototypes the Clostridium difficile toxin A and B) which glycosylate Rac at Thr35, inhibiting its functions by preventing effector coupling (Aktories et al. 2000). Rac GTPases are preferred targets for...

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Diamantis G. Konstantinidis
    • 1
  • Theodosia A. Kalfa
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Cancer and Blood Diseases InstituteCincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center and University of Cincinnati College of MedicineCincinnatiUSA