Polymyxin B sensitivity (PBS) 2, a yeast homolog of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3 (Mek3), was originally cloned (in 1987) as a gene that conferred polymyxin B resistance to yeast cells (Boguslawski and Polazzi 1987). The amino acid sequence of the PBS2 gene product showed strong homology to the serine/threonine protein kinase family (Boguslawski and Polazzi 1987). In 1993, it was shown that PBS2 and its downstream HOG1 genes, which code for a Mek3 homologue and a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) homologue, respectively, are necessary for yeast cells to grow at high osmolarity (Brewster et al. 1993). Two years after that study, Mek3 was first amplified by degenerative PCR as a human homolog of yeast PBS2, and overexpression of...
This work was partly supported by KAKENHIs (20591426 to SY, 21500332 to HS, and 20300135 to KY) and the Naito Foundation (to KY).
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