Encyclopedia of Signaling Molecules

2018 Edition
| Editors: Sangdun Choi

Androgen Receptor (AR)

  • Hatice Zeynep Nenseth
  • Martina Tesikova
  • Fahri Saatcioglu
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67199-4_514

Synonyms

Historical Background

Androgen receptor (AR) mediates the effects of androgens that are responsible for diverse biological functions, such as development and maintenance of the male reproductive system, as well as involvement in disease states, such as prostate cancer (PCa) (for a review, see Brinkmann (2011)). AR is a ligand-activated transcription factor (TF) that belongs to the steroid hormone receptor (SHR) family within the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily of TFs (for a review, see Huang et al. (2010)). In addition to AR, the SHR family contains the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), progesterone receptor (PR), and the estrogen receptor (ER). SHRs are structurally and functionally related and mediate the action of steroid hormones that affect nearly all aspects of development and homeostasis; they are also implicated in a number of...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Attard G, Parker C, Eeles RA, Schroder F, Tomlins SA, Tannock I, et al. Prostate cancer. Lancet. 2016;387:70–82. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61947-4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Baulieu EE, Jung I. A prostatic cytosol receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1970;38:599–606.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brinkmann AO. Molecular mechanisms of androgen action – a historical perspective. Methods Mol Biol. 2011;776:3–24. doi:10.1007/978-1-61779-243-4_1.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Caffo O, Maines F, Veccia A, Kinspergher S, Galligioni E. Splice variants of androgen receptor and prostate cancer. Oncol Rev. 2016;10:297. doi:10.4081/oncol.2016.297.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Centenera MM, Harris JM, Tilley WD, Butler LM. The contribution of different androgen receptor domains to receptor dimerization and signaling. Mol Endocrinol. 2008;22:2373–82. doi:10.1210/me.2008-0017.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Chang CS, Kokontis J, Liao ST. Molecular cloning of human and rat complementary DNA encoding androgen receptors. Science. 1988;240:324–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dehm S, Tindall DJ. Alternatively spliced androgen receptor variants. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2011. doi:10.1530/ERC-11-0141.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Fang S, Anderson KM, Liao S. Receptor proteins for androgens. On the role of specific proteins in selective retention of 17-beta-hydroxy-5-alpha-androstan-3-one by rat ventral prostate in vivo and in vitro. J Biol Chem. 1969;244:6584–95.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Foradori CD, Weiser MJ, Handa RJ. Non-genomic actions of androgens. Front Neuroendocrinol. 2008;29:169–81. doi:10.1016/j.yfrne.2007.10.005.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Gioeli D, Paschal BM. Post-translational modification of the androgen receptor. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011. doi:10.1016/j.mce.2011.07.004.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Huang P, Chandra V, Rastinejad F. Structural overview of the nuclear receptor superfamily: insights into physiology and therapeutics. Annu Rev Physiol. 2010;72:247–72. doi:10.1146/annurev-physiol-021909-135917.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Klokk TI, Kurys P, Elbi C, Nagaich AK, Hendarwanto A, Slagsvold T, et al. Ligand-specific dynamics of the androgen receptor at its response element in living cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:1823–43. doi:10.1128/MCB.01297-06.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Koryakina Y, Ta HQ, Gioeli D. Androgen receptor phosphorylation: biological context and functional consequences. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2014;21:T131–45. doi:10.1530/ERC-13-0472.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Kumar R, Atamna H, Zakharov MN, Bhasin S, Khan SH, Jasuja R. Role of the androgen receptor CAG repeat polymorphism in prostate cancer, and spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy. Life Sci. 2011;88:565–71. doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2011.01.021.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Lamb DJ, Weigel NL, Marcelli M. Androgen receptors and their biology. Vitam Horm. 2001;62:199–230.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Liao RS, Ma S, Miao L, Li R, Yin Y, Raj GV. Androgen receptor-mediated non-genomic regulation of prostate cancer cell proliferation. Transl Androl Urol. 2013;2:187–96. doi:10.3978/j.issn.2223-4683.2013.09.07.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Lubahn DB, Joseph DR, Sullivan PM, Willard HF, French FS, Wilson EM. Cloning of human androgen receptor complementary DNA and localization to the X chromosome. Science. 1988;240:327–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mainwaring WI. A soluble androgen receptor in the cytoplasm of rat prostate. J Endocrinol. 1969;45:531–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Matsumoto T, Sakari M, Okada M, Yokoyama A, Takahashi S, Kouzmenko A, et al. The androgen receptor in health and disease. Annu Rev Physiol. 2013;75:201–24. doi:10.1146/annurev-physiol-030212-183656.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Mills IG. Maintaining and reprogramming genomic androgen receptor activity in prostate cancer. Nat Rev Cancer. 2014;14:187–98. doi:10.1038/nrc3678.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Mongan NP, Tadokoro-Cuccaro R, Bunch T, Hughes IA. Androgen insensitivity syndrome. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015;29:569–80. doi:10.1016/j.beem.2015.04.005.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Shukla GC, Plaga AR, Shankar E, Gupta S. Androgen receptor-related diseases: what do we know? Andrology. 2016;4:366–81. doi:10.1111/andr.12167.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Tilley WD, Marcelli M, Wilson JD, McPhaul MJ. Characterization and expression of a cDNA encoding the human androgen receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:327–31.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Trapman J, Klaassen P, Kuiper GG, van der Korput JA, Faber PW, van Rooij HC, et al. Cloning, structure and expression of a cDNA encoding the human androgen receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1988;153:241–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. van de Wijngaart DJ, Dubbink HJ, van Royen ME, Trapman J, Jenster G. Androgen receptor coregulators: recruitment via the coactivator binding groove. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012;352:57–69. doi:10.1016/j.mce.2011.08.007.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Wang D, Tindall DJ. Androgen action during prostate carcinogenesis. Methods Mol Biol. 2011;776:25–44. doi:10.1007/978-1-61779-243-4_2.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Wilson EM. Analysis of interdomain interactions of the androgen receptor. Methods Mol Biol. 2011;776:113–29. doi:10.1007/978-1-61779-243-4_8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hatice Zeynep Nenseth
    • 1
  • Martina Tesikova
    • 1
  • Fahri Saatcioglu
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BiosciencesUniversity of OsloOsloNorway
  2. 2.Institute for Cancer Genetics and InformaticsOslo University HospitalOsloNorway