Encyclopedia of Signaling Molecules

2018 Edition
| Editors: Sangdun Choi


  • Akihiro KimuraEmail author
  • Tetsuji Naka
  • Tadamitsu Kishimoto
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67199-4_472


Historical Background

IL-6 was cloned as B cell stimulatory factor-2 (BSF-2) in 1986 (Hirano et al. 1986). This molecule has various biological activities; a strong stimulatory effect on growth of murine plasmacytoma and human myeloma, its functions as a hepatocyte stimulating factor, and the induction of acute phase reaction. IL-6 knockout (KO) mice revealed the inhibition of the antiviral antibody response after immunization with a vesicular stomatitis virus, compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Thus, IL-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine that is involved in the physiology of virtually every organ system.


CD4 + T cells (Th) are essential regulators of immune responses and inflammatory diseases. They can be divided into different subsets such as Th1, Th2, and regulatory T (Treg) cells, whose development is specified by the transcription factors T-bet, GATA3, and fork head box p3 (Foxp3), respectively (Fig. 1). The development...
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We thank our colleagues in our laboratory for helpful discussion. This work was supported by the Program for Promotion of Fundamental Studies in Health Sciences of the National Institute of Biomedical Innovation and Chugai-Roche Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Akihiro Kimura
    • 1
    Email author
  • Tetsuji Naka
    • 2
  • Tadamitsu Kishimoto
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Immune RegulationOsaka University Graduate School of Frontier BiosciencesOsakaJapan
  2. 2.Laboratory for Immune SignalNational Institute of Biomedical InnovationOsakaJapan