Encyclopedia of Signaling Molecules

2018 Edition
| Editors: Sangdun Choi


  • Aiysha Thompson
  • Riaz Jannoo
  • Venkateswarlu KanamarlapudiEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67199-4_400


Historical Background

Arf (ADP-ribosylation factor) proteins were first discovered as membrane-bound cofactors in the cholera-toxin-dependent ADP-ribosylation of Gα (Kahn and Gilman 1984). They are a family of Ras-related small GTP-binding proteins, approximately 21 kDa in size, and are expressed abundantly in all eukaryotic cells and some bacteria (Quinn 1995; Dong et al. 2007). Arfs regulate membrane trafficking and actin cytoskeleton dynamics, which are important for cellular events such as endocytosis, cell secretion, cell adhesion, cell migration, and neurite outgrowth (D’Souza-Schorey and Chavrier 2006). They act as molecular switches for many cellular pathways by cycling between inactive GDP-binding and active GTP-binding forms. Arf proteins are activated by guanine-nucleotide exchange factors...

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aiysha Thompson
    • 1
  • Riaz Jannoo
    • 1
  • Venkateswarlu Kanamarlapudi
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute of Life Science 1, School of MedicineSwansea UniversitySwanseaUK