Encyclopedia of Signaling Molecules

2018 Edition
| Editors: Sangdun Choi

Retinoic Acid Receptors (RARA, RARB, and RARC)

  • Scott A. BusbyEmail author
  • Thomas P. Burris
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67199-4_385


 NR1B1;  NR1B2;  NR1B3;  RARα;  RARβ;  RARγ

Historical Background

The retinoic acid receptors (RARs) are ligand-dependent transcription factors that belong to the NR1B subtype of the nuclear receptor (NRs) superfamily and have broad roles in development, cell growth and survival, vision, spermatogenesis, inflammation, and neural patterning. These receptors act in trans mainly as heterodimers with retinoid X receptors (RXRs). The actions of RARs are stimulated by the binding of cognate natural ligands (all trans retinoic acid and 9- cisretinoic acid) as well as a number of synthetic ligands. In the presence or absence of ligand, RAR/RXR heterodimers associate with retinoic acid DNA response elements (RAREs) present in the promoter or enhancer regions of target genes. When no ligand is present, corepressor proteins and histone deacetylases interact with the receptor DNA complexes and prevent transcription from occurring. When retinoid ligands are present, they bind and activate...
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Molecular TherapeuticsThe Scripps Research InstituteJupiterUSA