Retinoic Acid Receptors (RARA, RARB, and RARC)
Reference work entry
The retinoic acid receptors (RARs) are ligand-dependent transcription factors that belong to the NR1B subtype of the nuclear receptor (NRs) superfamily and have broad roles in development, cell growth and survival, vision, spermatogenesis, inflammation, and neural patterning. These receptors act in trans mainly as heterodimers with retinoid X receptors (RXRs). The actions of RARs are stimulated by the binding of cognate natural ligands (all trans retinoic acid and 9- cisretinoic acid) as well as a number of synthetic ligands. In the presence or absence of ligand, RAR/RXR heterodimers associate with retinoic acid DNA response elements (RAREs) present in the promoter or enhancer regions of target genes. When no ligand is present, corepressor proteins and histone deacetylases interact with the receptor DNA complexes and prevent transcription from occurring. When retinoid ligands are present, they bind and activate...
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