Somatostatin (SST) is a cyclopeptide that was first identified in the hypothalamus inhibiting GH secretion and immediately after in pancreatic islets inhibiting the insulin secretion in vitro, but it is produced also throughout the central and peripheral nervous system and in most major peripheral organs as endocrine pancreas, thyroid, adrenals, spleen, submandibular glands, gut, liver, kidneys, prostate, and placenta (Reisine and Bell 1995). SST is initially synthesized as a large precursor molecule, preprosomatostatin that undergoes tissue-specific enzymatic degradation generating two bioactive products: SST-14, identified in hypothalamus, and SST-28 that corresponds to somatostatin with a NH2-terminal extension of 14 amino acids. Nutrients (glucose, amino acids, lipids), neurotransmitters, neuropeptides (glucagons, growth hormone releasing hormone, bombesin), hormones (insulin, glucocorticoids) and cytokines (interleukin-1, interleukin-6,...
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