Encyclopedia of Signaling Molecules

2018 Edition
| Editors: Sangdun Choi

Somatostatin Receptor

  • Barbara MarinielloEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67199-4_334



Historical Background

Somatostatin (SST) is a cyclopeptide that was first identified in the hypothalamus inhibiting GH secretion and immediately after in pancreatic islets inhibiting the insulin secretion in vitro, but it is produced also throughout the central and peripheral nervous system and in most major peripheral organs as endocrine pancreas, thyroid, adrenals, spleen, submandibular glands, gut, liver, kidneys, prostate, and placenta (Reisine and Bell 1995). SST is initially synthesized as a large precursor molecule, preprosomatostatin that undergoes tissue-specific enzymatic degradation generating two bioactive products: SST-14, identified in hypothalamus, and SST-28 that corresponds to somatostatin with a NH2-terminal extension of 14 amino acids. Nutrients (glucose, amino acids, lipids), neurotransmitters, neuropeptides (glucagons, growth hormone releasing hormone, bombesin), hormones (insulin, glucocorticoids) and cytokines (interleukin-1, interleukin-6,...

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Endocrinology Unit, Department of Medical and Surgical SciencesUniversity of PaduaPaduaItaly