Introduction and Historical Background
Regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins constitute a diverse family with more than 30 members that contain the hallmark RGS domain. Most members serve as negative regulators of G protein signaling by catalyzing the GTP hydrolysis on Gα subunits leading to their inactivation (Ross and Wilkie 2000; Hollinger and Hepler 2002). Based on their structural organization and sequence homology RGS proteins are divided into five to six families (Ross and Wilkie 2000; Hollinger and Hepler 2002). The R7 RGS family (R7 RGS) contains multidomain proteins conserved from C. elegans to humans that, in mammals are represented by four members: RGS6, RGS7, RGS9, and RGS11. R7 RGS proteins play important roles in the nervous system by controlling neurotransmitter action at rhodopsin, μ-opioid, D2 dopamine, and GABA(B) receptors (Anderson et al. 2009a).
The unique feature of this group is that they...
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