The extracellular matrix (ECM) provides a structural and signaling environment that determines cell fate, adhesion, proliferation, differentiation, migration, and communication during development, tissue maintenance and repair, and pathological processes. The composition of the ECM is unique in each organ and consistently includes various types of collagens, noncollagenous glycoproteins, and a range of enzymes essential for ECM assembly and maintenance including lysyl oxidase (LOX). LOX is a copper-dependent amine oxidase that oxidatively deaminates specific peptidyl lysine and hydroxylysine residues within its substrates, the best known of which are fibrillar collagens and elastin. The resulting reactive aldehyde residues then spontaneously condense to form covalent intra- and intermolecular cross-linkages leading to the development of insoluble ECM matrices. Besides the cross-linking activity of LOX in the ECM of skin, lung,...
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