Inhibitor of DNA Binding 4 (ID4)
Transcription factors containing a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) motif regulate expression of tissue-specific genes in a number of mammalian and insect systems, playing a key role in the differentiation processes. These proteins contain an HLH domain, which mediates homo- and heterodimerization, plus an adjacent DNA-binding region rich in basic amino acids. The bHLH proteins bind to a DNA sequence known as E-box (CANNTG).
Dominant-negative HLH proteins encoded by Id-related genes, such as Id4, also contain the HLH-dimerization domain but lack the DNA-binding basic domain. Consequently, Id proteins inhibit binding to DNA and transcriptional transactivation by heterodimerization with bHLH proteins (Lasorella et al. 2014). In mammals there are four known Id gene family members, known as Id1, Id2, Id3, and Id4. The identity between the HLH regions of Id proteins is very high, while the remaining regions of the proteins are not...
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