SARM1 (Sterile Alpha and TIR Motif-Containing Protein 1)
Human sterile alpha and TIR motif-containing protein 1 (SARM1) gene was first cloned and described located at chromosome 17q11 by Mink et al. in 2001. It encodes a protein with domains of sterile alpha motif (SAM) and Armadillo motif (ARM) thus naming SARM (Mink et al. 2001). Later, a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain was annotated in the C-terminal region of SARM; therefore it was renamed as SARM1 (O’Neill et al. 2003; Mink and Csiszar 2005). TIR domain is present in Toll-like receptors (TLRs), cytokine receptors, and cytoplasm adaptors that mediate innate immune responses to against microbiota infection. There are 10 TLRs in human and 13 TLRs in mice. Those TLRs recognize different components of pathogens and trigger signaling through TIR-TIR domain interactions with distinct TLR adaptors (O’Neill and Bowie 2007). Currently,...
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