Reference work entry
Rab27 is a member of the Rab family small GTPases, which constitute the largest family of membrane trafficking proteins in all eukaryotes. Rab27 is widely conserved in metazoans, including Caenorhabditis elegans (nematode), Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly), and Loligo pealei (long-finned squid), and is conserved in all species of vertebrates, but it is not found in yeasts or plants (Diekmann et al. 2011). Like other small GTPases, Rab27 functions as a switch molecule by cycling between a GTP-bound active state and a GDP-bound inactive state (Fig. 1). In its GTP-bound active state, Rab27 has been shown to regulate a variety of secretory pathways by recruiting specific effector molecules (Fukuda 2013). Although invertebrates appear to contain a single Rab27 isoform, vertebrates contain two Rab27 isoforms, Rab27A and Rab27B, which exhibit more than 70% identity at the amino acid level. RAB27Ais the...
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