Miro (Mitochondrial Rho)
The Ras superfamily family of small GTPases consists of GTP binding-dependent molecular switches with diverse cellular functions. Two isoforms of an “atypical” Rho GTPases, named mitochondrial Rho (Miro), are the first identified mitochondrial-associated Ras superfamily members (Fransson et al. 2003). Evolutionary conserved Miro GTPase has been identified in humans (Fransson et al. 2003), yeast (Frederick et al. 2004), Drosophila (Guo et al. 2005), as well as plant (Yamaoka and Leaver 2008).
Functional studies of Miro in various organisms have suggested critical roles of Miro in regulating mitochondrial morphology (Fransson et al. 2003), inheritance (Frederick et al. 2004), and mitochondrial calcium homeostasis (Lee et al. 2016). It is also a key regulator of cytoskeleton-mediated, long-range mitochondrial transport in...
- Fransson A, Ruusala A, Aspenstrom P. Atypical Rho GTPases have roles in mitochondrial homeostasis and apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:6495–502.Google Scholar
- Guo X, Macleod GT, Wellington A, Hu F, Panchumarthi S, Schoenfield M, Marin L, Charlton MP, Atwood HL, Zinsmaier KE. The GTPase dMiro is required for axonal transport of mitochondria to Drosophila synapses. Neuron. 2005;47:379–93.Google Scholar
- Kitada T, Asakawa S, Hattori N, Matsumine H, Yamamura Y, Minoshima S, Yokochi M, Mizuno Y, Shimizu N. Mutations in the parkin gene cause autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism. Nature. 1998;392:605–8.Google Scholar
- Rizzuto R, De Stefani D, Raffaello A, Mammucari C. Mitochondria as sensors and regulators of calcium signalling. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2012;13:566–78.Google Scholar
- Schon EA, Area-Gomez E. Mitochondria-associated ER membranes in Alzheimer disease. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2013;55:26–36.Google Scholar
- Valente EM, Abou-Sleiman PM, Caputo V, Muqit MM, Harvey K, Gispert S, Ali Z, Del Turco D, Bentivoglio AR, Healy DG, et al. Hereditary early-onset Parkinson’s disease caused by mutations in PINK1. Science. 2004;304:1158–60.Google Scholar