Encyclopedia of Signaling Molecules

2018 Edition
| Editors: Sangdun Choi


  • Xin-Ming MaEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67199-4_101733


Historical Background

Kalirin ( Kal) was discovered as an interactor of the cytosolic domain of peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), a secretory granule membrane protein in 1996 (Alam et al. 1996). Kalirin is a Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (Rho GEF) that regulates critical processes necessary for the formation of dendritic spines, synaptic plasticity, and neurite outgrowth through activating small Rho GTPase including Rac1, RhoG, and RhoA. Rho GTPases play essential roles in regulating dendritic spine formation and synapse plasticity through regulating the actin cytoskeleton by functioning as molecular switches, exchanging between an active GTP-bound state and an inactive GDP-bound state (Miller et al. 2013). Multiple kalirin isoforms are generated...
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Thanks to Dr. Mains for his reading the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Engineering Laboratory for Resource Development of Endangered Crude Drugs in Northwest China, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Medicinal Resources and Natural Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Life ScienceShaanxi Normal UniversityXianChina
  2. 2.Department of NeuroscienceUniversity of Connecticut Health CenterFarmingtonUSA