P-Rex1 (PIP3-dependent Rac exchanger 1, PREX1) is a Dbl-type guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) that activates Rac-like small G proteins (small GTPases). P-Rex1 was discovered in 2002, during a search for targets of the lipid second messenger phosphatidyl inositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) which is generated by phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) (Welch et al. 2002). At the time, it was known that PI3K can activate Rac and that this activation must occur indirectly, through unknown mediators. P-Rex1 was purified on the basis of its ability to activate recombinant Rac1 in the presence of PIP3 (Welch et al. 2002). The Gβγ subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins, which are released upon the activation of G...
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