Superoxide Dismutase 1-3
According to oxygenic theory of evolution, the atmosphere initially contained low concentration of oxygen. The genesis of photosynthetic organisms approximately 2.5 billion years ago initiated the development of plants and other life-forms able to use aerobic metabolism. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), although needed to normal cellular functions, are in aberrant concentrations potentially harmful molecules damaging various cellular structures. Hence, it is probable that already the first living organisms acquired antioxidative defense mechanisms. Superoxide dismutases (SOD) represent a reduction-oxidation (redox) metalloprotein enzyme family, which, according to oxygenic theory of evolution, was connected to the availability of transition metals in the biosphere (Bannister et al. 1991).
There are three members in mammalian superoxide dismutase family: CuZnSOD (SOD1), MnSOD (SOD2), and EC-SOD (SOD3)....
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