The CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) belongs to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. Chemokines and their receptors were initially discovered in the context of cell trafficking and effector functions in cells of the immune system. Before CCR5 was described as receptor, one of its inhibitory ligands (RANTES, regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) was found in the late 1980s as a molecule derived from T-cells (Schall et al. 1988). However, this detection of the ligand did not facilitate the detection of the corresponding receptor. This first description of CCR5 was part of the search for the entry mechanism of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in the mid-1990s. At this time, it was well described that the T-cell receptor CD4 is mandatory for transmission of HIV-1 but the virus requires an additional unknown coreceptor for invasion. CCR5 was found...
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