Encyclopedia of Signaling Molecules

2018 Edition
| Editors: Sangdun Choi


  • Chrysovalantou Mihailidou
  • Ioulia Chatzistamou
  • Hippokratis KiarisEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67199-4_101561


Historical Background

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was identified in 1902 by the Italian scientist Emilio Verratti. However, the existence of the ER as an organelle was identified by Keith Porter in 1953 and by George Palade in 1956, by providing the first high-resolution images of the ER marking the beginning of historical facets of ER stress research (Fig. 1). Research conducted from 1902 to 1987 revealed its major molecular functions such as calcium homeostasis, protein folding and processing, and lipid biosynthesis (Garg et al. 2015). In the early 1970s, Palade and Blobel provided crucial evidence that ER is studded with ribosomes on its outer surface, thus identifying the crucial role of ER in protein synthesis and secretion (Garg...
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chrysovalantou Mihailidou
    • 1
  • Ioulia Chatzistamou
    • 2
  • Hippokratis Kiaris
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of BiochemistryUniversity of Athens Medical SchoolAthensGreece
  2. 2.Department of Pathology, Microbiology and ImmunologyUniversity of South Carolina School of Medicine, University of South CarolinaColumbiaUSA
  3. 3.Department of Drug Discovery and Biomedical SciencesUniversity of South CarolinaColumbiaUSA