Encyclopedia of Signaling Molecules

2018 Edition
| Editors: Sangdun Choi

Gamma-1-Syntrophin

  • Umar Mushtaq
  • Firdous A. Khanday
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67199-4_101492

Synonyms

Historical Background Putative

Gamma syntrophins were discovered by a team of scientists led by Giulio Pilusoin in the year 2000. They found that human neuronal cell contains two novel proteins which have domain organization similar to already discovered syntrophins. They named these two proteins as gamma-1-syntrophin (SNTG1) and gamma-2-syntrophin (SNTG2). Syntrophins are adapter proteins which include other three known homologous isoforms alpha-1-syntrophin (SNTA1), beta-1-syntrophin (SNTB1), and beta-2-syntrophin (SNTB2) (Froehner et al. 1997). Syntrophins are usually found associated with dystrophin family of proteins and got their name from a Greek word “syntrophos” meaning “companion” or “associate” (Froehner et al. 1997). Gamma-1-syntrophin protein is encoded by SNTG1 gene which is located on chromosome 1 in mouse and on chromosome 8 in humans. Human SNTG1 gene is composed of 19 exons and codes for a brain-specific protein of 517...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Ahn AH, Freener CA, Gussoni E, Yoshida M, Ozawa E, Kunkel LM. The three human syntrophin genes are expressed in diverse tissues, have distinct chromosomal locations, and each bind to dystrophin and its relatives. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:2724–30.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Alessi A, Bragg AD, Percival JM, Yoo J, Albrecht DE, Froehner SC, et al. Gamma-Syntrophin scaffolding is spatially and functionally distinct from that of the alpha/beta syntrophins. Exp Cell Res. 2006;312:3084–95.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2006.06.019.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Bashiardes S, Veile R, Allen M, Wise CA, Dobbs M, Morcuende JA, et al. SNTG1, the gene encoding gamma1-syntrophin: a candidate gene for idiopathic scoliosis. Hum Genet. 2004;115:81–9.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00439-004-1121-y.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Bhat HF, Baba RA, Bashir M, Saeed S, Kirmani D, Wani MM, et al. Alpha-1-syntrophin protein is differentially expressed in human cancers. Biomarkers. 2011;16:31–6.  https://doi.org/10.3109/1354750x.2010.522731.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Buccione R, Orth JD, McNiven MA. Foot and mouth: podosomes, invadopodia and circular dorsal ruffles. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2004;5:647–57.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nrm1436.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Cobb J. Outline for the study of scoliosis. In: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, editors. Instructional course lectures. Ann Arbor 1948;5. p. 261–5.Google Scholar
  7. Froehner SC, Adams ME, Peters MF, Gee SH. Syntrophins: modular adapter proteins at the neuromuscular junction and the sarcolemma. Soc Gen Physiol Ser. 1997;52:197–207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Hafner A, Obermajer N, Kos J. Gamma-1-syntrophin mediates trafficking of gamma-enolase towards the plasma membrane and enhances its neurotrophic activity. Neurosignals. 2010;18:246–58.  https://doi.org/10.1159/000324292.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Hogan A, Shepherd L, Chabot J, Quenneville S, Prescott SM, Topham MK, et al. Interaction of gamma 1-syntrophin with diacylglycerol kinase-zeta. Regulation of nuclear localization by PDZ interactions. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:26526–33.  https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M104156200.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Hogan A, Yakubchyk Y, Chabot J, Obagi C, Daher E, Maekawa K, et al. The phosphoinositol 3,4-bisphosphate-binding protein TAPP1 interacts with syntrophins and regulates actin cytoskeletal organization. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:53717–24.  https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M410654200.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Piluso G, Mirabella M, Ricci E, Belsito A, Abbondanza C, Servidei S, et al. Gamma1- and gamma2-syntrophins, two novel dystrophin-binding proteins localized in neuronal cells. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:15851–60.  https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M000439200.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyUniversity of KashmirSrinagarIndia