Syntrophins were first identified in the postsynaptic membranes of the Torpedo electric organ. Alpha-1-syntrophin is a 58 kDa peripheral cytoplasmic membrane adaptor protein and is a member of the syntrophin family. It is encoded by the SNTA gene in humans and is 505 amino acids long. The full-length cDNA is 2,163 bp long. It encodes a single large open reading frame which maps to chromosome 20q11.2 (Adams et al. 1993, 1995; Ahn et al. 1994; Yang et al. 1994). The human alpha-1-syntrophin is 94% identical to the mouse sequence and about 93% identical to the rabbit sequence (Ahn et al. 1994, 1996a). Alpha-1-syntrophin is the acidic isoform (pI = 6.7) of the syntrophin family. It was the first isoform of the syntrophin to be discovered (Adams et al. 1995; Froehner et al. 1997) and has since been cloned and characterized (Ahn et al. 1996a). Alpha-1-syntrophin exists as a monomer as well as a dimer...
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