Encyclopedia of Signaling Molecules

2018 Edition
| Editors: Sangdun Choi


  • Carlos Eduardo Repeke
  • Thiago Pompermaier Garlet
  • Angélica Cristina Fonseca
  • Elcia Maria Silveira
  • Gustavo Pompermaier GarletEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67199-4_10


Historical Background

CCL4 was initially described in 1988, as a partially purified 8-kDa protein doublet from conditioned medium of endotoxin-stimulated mouse macrophages. In the view of its prominent proinflammatory chemotactic role, characterized both in vivo and in vitro at that time, this protein was denominated macrophage inflammatory protein-1 (MIP-1). Further biochemical experimentation resulted in the separation and characterization of two distinct but highly related proteins, then renamed as MIP-1α and MIP-1β. Also in 1988, the human equivalent of MIP-1β (Act-2, AT 744) was independently cloned by different groups, and similarly, several other cytokines with prominent chemotactic properties were identified, leading to the introduction of a new classification and nomenclature introduction for the designation of the chemokines, in which, murine MIP-1β and human MIP-1β have been renamed CCL4 (Zlotnik and Yoshie 2000).


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carlos Eduardo Repeke
    • 1
  • Thiago Pompermaier Garlet
    • 2
  • Angélica Cristina Fonseca
    • 3
  • Elcia Maria Silveira
    • 4
  • Gustavo Pompermaier Garlet
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.PPGCAS, Department of Dentistry of LagartoFederal University of Sergipe - DOL/UFSLagartoBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Structural and Molecular Biology and GeneticsState University of Ponta GrossaPonta GrossaBrazil
  3. 3.OSTEOimmunology lab, Department of Biological Sciences, School of Dentistry of BauruSão Paulo University, FOB/USPBauruBrazil
  4. 4.Universidade do Sagrado Coração (USC)BauruBrazil