Primary mesenchymal tumors of the mediastinum are unusual tumors with a low incidence among all mediastinal tumors and cysts. In the thoracic cavity, benign neoplasms of smooth muscle origin primarily originate from the esophagus or the walls of the great vessels. Primary mediastinal leiomyomas are thought to arise from the small vessels of the mediastinal soft tissue, and although their exact cause remains uncertain, estrogenic influences and trauma have been implicated in its pathogenesis. There appears to be a striking gender predilection toward female patients making detailed clinical and radiological examination essential to rule out the possibility of the so-called benign metastasizing leiomyoma from a uterine primary. In addition, extension into the mediastinal space from other neighboring structures such as the pleural surfaces, pericardium, esophagus, or great vessels should be excluded radiologically or intraoperatively.
The incidence of...