Pathology of the Pleura and Mediastinum

2018 Edition
| Editors: Timothy Craig Allen, Saul Suster

Mediastinal Leiomyoma

  • Annikka WeissferdtEmail author
  • Cesar A. Moran
Reference work entry


Primary mesenchymal tumors of the mediastinum are unusual tumors with a low incidence among all mediastinal tumors and cysts. In the thoracic cavity, benign neoplasms of smooth muscle origin primarily originate from the esophagus or the walls of the great vessels. Primary mediastinal leiomyomas are thought to arise from the small vessels of the mediastinal soft tissue, and although their exact cause remains uncertain, estrogenic influences and trauma have been implicated in its pathogenesis. There appears to be a striking gender predilection toward female patients making detailed clinical and radiological examination essential to rule out the possibility of the so-called benign metastasizing leiomyoma from a uterine primary. In addition, extension into the mediastinal space from other neighboring structures such as the pleural surfaces, pericardium, esophagus, or great vessels should be excluded radiologically or intraoperatively.

Clinical Features

  • Incidence

    The incidence of...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Baldó, X., Sureda, C., Gimferrer, J. M., & Belda, J. (1997). Primary mediastinal leiomyoma: An angiographic study and embolisation of the feeding vessels to improve the surgical approach. European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, 11, 574–576.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Mehine, M., Mäkinen, N., Heinonen, H. R., Aaltonen, L. A., & Vahteristo, P. (2014). Genomics of uterine leiomyomas: Insights from high-throughput sequencing. Fertility and Sterility, 102, 621–629.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ouadnouni, Y., Achir, A., Bekarsabein, S., Bouchikh, M., Smahi, M., Msougar, Y., Mahassini, N., & Benosman, A. (2009). Primary mediastinal leiomyoma: A case report. Cases Journal, 2, 8555.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Shaffer, K., Pugatch, R. D., & Sugarbaker, D. J. (1990). Primary mediastinal leiomyoma. Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 50, 301–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Uno, A., Sakurai, M., Onuma, K., Yamane, Y., Kurita, K., Hayashi, I., Ikeda, M., Hagiwara, N., Tominaga, K., & Hakozaki, H. (1988). A case of giant mediastinal leiomyoma with long-term survival. Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine, 156, 1–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.MD Anderson Cancer CenterHoustonUSA