Homeopathic Nanomedicines and Their Effect on the Environment

  • P. Nandy
  • P. Bandyopadhyay
  • M. Chakraborty
  • A. Dey
  • D. Bera
  • B. K. Paul
  • S. Kar
  • A. Gayen
  • R. Basu
  • S. Das
  • D. S. Bhar
  • S. Manna
  • R. K. Manchanda
  • A. K. Khurana
  • D. Nayak
Living reference work entry

Abstract

Introduction

Homeopathic medicines are inexpensive, easy to fabricate, environment friendly, nontoxic, and cost-effective. Very small amount of natural ingredients, no chemicals, and easy manufacturing process using simple equipments are required to produce these medicines. The little waste is also almost exclusively biodegradable. These lead to preservation of natural resources and a small carbon footprint with negligible environmental impact and no question of over-consumption. Environment-conscious human beings thus have the opportunity to conserve energy and protect the environment by using homeopathic medicines.

Using the recently established nanoparticle aspect of these medicines, we have been working on a very interesting and unique field of “homeopathic nanomedicines and their effect on environment.”

Degradation of Herbicidal Chemicals

The occurrence and fate of active pharmaceutical ingredients present in water and industrial wastewater have been a prime concern of today. Residues from human environments contain agents that can contaminate natural environments.

Several industries use azo dyes as coloring agents. They are mostly found in industrial wastewater effluents and cause environmental pollution. These chemically complex synthetic compounds are not easily degradable by using bacteria or chemicals.

Using the nanomedicine Cuprum metallicum, we have shown how one such azo dye, methyl orange, can be degraded. Maximum dye degradation, as well as antibacterial effect against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, was observed in the presence of 200C potency of the nanomedicine.

Increase in Growth and Germination Rate in Plants

Due to higher temperature and humidity, storage of seeds is a major problem in tropical countries. With time the seeds lose their moisture and germination activity along with important minerals and proteins.

We have shown how pretreatment with homeopathic nanomedicine Allium cepa enhances the invigoration and root growth of mung bean seeds, stored for more than 2 years. Because of its nanodimension, the medicine easily penetrates the membrane and gives the required effect. This way we can reduce the use of fertilizers or chemicals with side effects. The study will be useful for farmers.

Increase of Photo- and Thermovoltage Generation

In order to combat the great energy demand in an environment-friendly way, photoconversion of solar energy has been the target of research. For efficient use of solar energy, various techniques are being developed, the use of engineered nanoparticles being the latest addition in the list. However, the hazardous effects of them limit their use.

In this search for a suitable agent, we realized that zinc oxide, a homeopathic medicine tagged with suitable dyes, can efficiently be used for photovoltage generation. This system can also be used for thermovoltage generation and can be successfully used to utilize the industrial waste heat.

Enhancement of Electrical Properties of Capacitors

The electrical properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) films have been improved by incorporating a number of homeopathic nanomedicines by simple solution casting technique, which increases the dielectric constant of the pure PVDF to a maximum of four to six times the value of the pure one. This enhancement of electrical properties will have a significant contribution in the present-day research in electronics. As negligible, renewable, or biodegradable chemical are used to prepare homeopathic medicines, very small pollution will occur compared to other chemically synthesized nanoparticles. In this way we can connect with the web of life for a long time in this universe without hampering our ecosystem.

Therapeutic and Wound-Healing Effects of Homeopathic Medicine

Commercially available drugs while cure the disease also affect the system adversely, and their toxic effect lingers. Homeopathic medicine is a very good alternative to curb these side effects.

Effect on hemolysis using Aurum metallicum at three different potencies has been studied. All the samples are found to be nontoxic, causing minimum harm to the red blood cells. Hemolysis is maximum for the drug at 6C potency. Cuprum metallicum also has good capability to destroy gram-negative bacteria (E. coli) and shows wound-healing activity in a dose-dependent manner. So it seems that homeopathic drugs have potential scope as future medicine instead of the harmful commercially available medicines which have hazardous side effects both on human life and to the environment.

Keywords

Homeopathic medicine Potentization Succussion Zincum oxydatum Allium cepa Cuprum metallicum Aurum metallicum Cobalt metallicum Ferrum metallicum Sulfur Dye degradation Pollution Herbicides Agrohomeopathy Invigoration Plant growth Root elongation Germination Growth inhibition Toxicity Technohomeopathy Photovoltage generation Thermovoltage generation Energy conversion efficiency Fill factor Photoeletrochemical cell Capacitance Dielectric constant AC conductivity Tangent loss Therapeutic effect Montmorillonite clay Hemolysis Wound healing Slow release Leaching Antibiotics Zone of inhibition Characterization FESEM EDX DLS FTIR XRD 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Nandy
    • 1
  • P. Bandyopadhyay
    • 1
  • M. Chakraborty
    • 1
  • A. Dey
    • 1
  • D. Bera
    • 1
  • B. K. Paul
    • 1
  • S. Kar
    • 1
  • A. Gayen
    • 1
  • R. Basu
    • 1
  • S. Das
    • 1
  • D. S. Bhar
    • 1
  • S. Manna
    • 1
  • R. K. Manchanda
    • 2
  • A. K. Khurana
    • 2
  • D. Nayak
    • 2
  1. 1.Centre for Interdisciplinary Research and EducationKolkataIndia
  2. 2.Central Council for Research in HomeopathyNew DelhiIndia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and Environmental SciencesNew Jersey Institute of TechnologyNewarkUSA

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