Fluoride Contamination in Groundwater and the Source Mineral Releasing Fluoride in Groundwater of Indo-Gangetic Alluvium, India

Living reference work entry

Abstract

The problem of high fluoride contaminated groundwater is one of the major drinking water issues of the world. This problem is not only affecting the under developed/developing nations but also adversely impacting the most developed nations. Drinking fluoride contaminated water leads to a very painful disease called fluorosis, which is noncurable and may be fatal in later stage. Although minor values of fluoride in our food intake is necessary for the dental health, if it is consumed beyond the permissible limit then it may cause serious damage to our teeth, muscles, and bones. The fluoride content in groundwater is generally related with hard rock terrains but in last few decades it had been widely reported from the alluvial plains. The Indo-Gangetic Alluvium, which is one of the largest alluvial plains of the world, is also severely affected by this issue. Thus, a detailed study was done in this area to decipher the reasons for the release of fluoride into the ground water as there is no hard rocks reported in the nearby areas, and it was suspected that this fluoride is leaching from sandy or clayey soils. The study includes the mineralogical identification of various minerals found in the sediments. The probable mineral releasing the fluoride in the groundwater of the affected area was identified from the sand fraction. Interestingly, the Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA values) analyzed for the sediment samples confirmed the various rate of weathering active in the area, and the minerals were in the various phases of alteration. One such mineral was identified as biotite which was under the process of alteration into chlorite and was the main reason for releasing the fluoride into the ground water.

References

  1. Acker JG, Bricker OP (1992) The influence of pH on biotite dissolution and alteration kinetics at low temperature. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 56:3073–3092CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ansari AA (1997) Geochemical and geomorphological study of Ganga Plain in Kanpur- Unnao Industrial Region- India, 188p (Unpublished)Google Scholar
  3. Appele CAI, Postma D (1993) Geochemistry groundwater and pollution. A. A. Balkema, Leiden, pp 202–238Google Scholar
  4. BERNER EK, BERNER RA (1996) Global Environment: Water, Air and Geochemical Cycles. Prentice Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ, 376pGoogle Scholar
  5. Bricker OP, Garrels RM (1967) Mineralogic factors in natural water equilibria. In Faust, S.D. and Hunter, J.V. (Eds): Principles and Application of Water Chemistry. John Wiley & Sons, pp. 449–469Google Scholar
  6. Chaturvedi PC, Trivedi BB, Srivastava MM, Adil M (1992) Study of aquifer system from electric logs in parts of central Ganga Basin, UP. In: Gangetic plain: tera incognita. University of Lucknow, Lucknow, pp 29–34Google Scholar
  7. Deshkar SM, Deshmukh AN (1998) Safe limit of fluoride content in drinking water for population inhabiting semi- arid tropical regions of the world, suffering from endemic calciummalnutrition. Gond Geol Magazine Sp. vol. 3, 11–26Google Scholar
  8. Fritz SJ (1988) A comparative study of a gabbro and granite weathering. Chem Geol 6:275–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hakim A, Singh N, Baranwal M (2001) Evolution of structure of Ganga basin in Lucknow Kanpur area, based on gravity, magnetic and resistivity surveys. Geol Soc. India Sp. Issue, 65 (III): 131–135Google Scholar
  10. Khanna SP (1992) Hydrogeology of central ganga plain, UP. In: Gangetic plain: tera incognita. University of Lucknow, Lucknow, pp 23–27Google Scholar
  11. Kumar S, Saxena A (2011) Chemical weathering of the indo-Gangetic alluvium with special reference to release of fluoride in the groundwater, Unnao district, Uttar Pradesh, India. J Geol Soc India 77:459–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Middelburg JJ, Corhelis H, Vander W, Joost RWW (1988) Chemical process affecting the mobility of major, minor and trace elements during weathering of granitic rocks. Chem Geol 68:253–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Nesbitt HW, Young GM (1982) Early proterozoic climates and plate motions inferred from major element chemistry of lutites. Nature 299:715–717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Nesbitt HW, Fedo CM, Young GM (1997) Quartz and feldspar stability, steady and non-steady state weathering and petrogenesis of siliciclastic sands and muds. Jour Geol 105:173–191Google Scholar
  15. Ollier C (1969) Weathearing. Oliver and Boyd. Edi-burgh. Chapter III: 27–45Google Scholar
  16. Rai D (1997) Geochemistry of fluoride enrichment in groundwater Unnao district, Uttar Pradesh. Geol Survey Ind 48(2):169–172. Spl PublicationGoogle Scholar
  17. Saini HS, Pant NC, Mujtaba SAI (2001) Indo Gangetic alluvial plain- a thrust area for social geosciences. Geol Soc India 65(III):123–130. Spl IssueGoogle Scholar
  18. Sharma A, Rajamani V (2000) Weathering of gneissic rocks in the upper reaches of the Cauvery river, Southern India: implications to neotectonics of the region. Chem Geol 166:203–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Sharma A, Rajamani V (2001) Weathering of charnokites and sediment production in the catchment area of the Cauvery river, Southern India. Sediment Geol 143:169–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Sharma RC, Rao BMR, Saxena RK (2004) Salt affected soils in India- current assessment. In: International conference on sustainable management of sodic lands, Lucknow, India, pp 1–26Google Scholar
  21. Singh IB (1992) Geological evolution of Gangetic plain: present status. In: Gangetic plain: tera incognita. University of Lucknow, Lucknow, pp 1–14Google Scholar
  22. Singh IB (2004) Late quaternary history of the ganga plain. J Geol Soc India 64:431–454Google Scholar
  23. Singh M, Sharma M, Tobschall HJ (2005) Weathering of the ganga alluvial plain, Northern India: implication from fluvial geochemistry of the Gomati river. Appl Geochem 20:1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Susheela AK (2003) Fluorosis: global scenario. A treatise on fluorosis. Fluorosis Research and Rural Development Foundation, New Delhi, pp 15–18Google Scholar
  25. Weijden CHV, Weijden RDV (1995) Mobility of major, minor and some redox-sensitive trace elements and rare-earth elements during weathering of four granitoids in central Portugal. Chem Geol 125:149–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. WHO (2004) Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality. Volume 1. Recommendations. 3rd edition. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  27. Wilson HJ (1987) Chapter II. X-Ray powder diffraction methods. In: A handbook of determinative methods in clay mineralogy. Chapman and Hall, New York, pp 26–98Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Civil EngineeringSri Ramswaroop Memorial UniversityBarabankiIndia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and Environmental SciencesNew Jersey Institute of TechnologyNewarkUSA

Personalised recommendations