Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

Living Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

UBO

  • Nathan D. Zasler
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-56782-2_79-2

Synonyms

Definition

UBO is the focal area of white matter brain abnormality visualized on T2-weighted MRI scans. They are non-contrast enhancing areas of increased signal intensity. UBOs will appear like demyelinating or dysmyelinating disease on MRI and as structurally distinct lesions on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) as well as MR Spectroscopy (MRS). Most UBOs are found in the basal ganglia but may also be found in the cerebral hemispheres, brainstem, cerebellum, and thalamus. UBOs are also commonly referred to as white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) due to their bright-white appearance on T2 MRI scans and have also been termed as leukoaraiosis (referring to white matter rarefication).

Underlying vascular mechanisms are suspected. Hypertension, smoking, diabetes, migraine, and heart disease are all risk factors for leukoaraiosis. UBOs/WMLs tend to occur more with age. Histologically, the...

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References and Readings

  1. Briley, D. P., Haroon, S., Sergent, S. M., & Thomas, S. (2000). Does leukoaraiosis predict morbidity and mortality. Neurology, 54, 90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Henninger, N., Izzy, S., Carandang, R., et al. (2014). Severe leukoaraiosis portends a poor outcome after traumatic brain injury. Neurocritical Care, 21(3), 483–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. O’Sullivan, M. (2008). Leukoaraiosis. Practical Neurology, 8(1), 26–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Pantoni, L. (2008). Leukoaraiosis: From an ancient term to an actual marker of poor prognosis. Stroke, 39(5), 1401–1403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Pantoni, L., & Garcia, J. H. (1995). The significance of cerebral white matter abnormalities 100 years after Binswanger’s report: A review. Stroke, 26, 1293–1301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Concussion Care Centre of Virginia, Ltd.RichmondUSA