Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

Living Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Leukoaraiosis

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-56782-2_499-2

Synonyms

Definition

Leukoaraiosis is a radiological diagnosis referring to rarefaction of white matter and describes brain pathology characterized by diffuse, confluent white matter abnormalities, typically in the periventricular regions of the brain. Most associated with disease of the small vessels, leukoaraiosis is thought to reflect chronic low-level ischemia in combination with blood-brain barrier dysfunction. Additionally, it may be associated with blood vessel abnormalities, other ischemic events, edema, and cerebral amyloid angiopathy. The underlying pathology includes myelin pallor, enlargement of perivascular spaces, gliosis, axonal loss, and ischemic demyelination. Vascular risk factors, such as hypertension, heart disease, or diabetes, and increasing age are risk factors for developing leukoaraiosis. Leukoaraiosis is detectable by high-frequency CT and...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References and Readings

  1. Grueter, B. E., & Schulz, U. G. (2012). Age-related cerebral white matter disease (leukoaraiosis): A review. Postgraduate Medical Journal, 88, 79–87.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Miki, Y., & Sakamoto, S. (2013). Age-related white matter lesions (Leukoaraiosis): An update. Brain and Nerve, 65(7), 789–799.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. O’Sullivan, M. (2008). Leukoaraiosis. Practical Neurology, 8, 26–38.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Pantoni, L., & Garcia, J. H. (1995). The signficance of cerebral white matter abnormalities 100 years after Binswanger’s report: A review. Stroke, 26, 1293–1301.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Pantoni, L., & Garcia, J. H. (1997). Pathogenesis of leukoaraiosis: A review. Stroke, 28, 652–659.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Pantoni, L., & Inzitari, D. (1998). New clinical relevance of leukoaraiosis. Stroke, 29(2), 543.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA
  2. 2.Department of NeurologyUniversity of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA