Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

Living Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Wide Range Achievement Test-4

  • Bruce Caplan
Living reference work entry

Later version available View entry history

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-56782-2_3000-2



The Wide Range Achievement Test of a widely used academic achievement test battery, originally consisting of subtests measuring single-word reading, written spelling, and written mathematics. The current version also contains a “cloze” test of sentence comprehension, an important addition that addresses a substantive criticism leveled at earlier versions. Word Reading and Sentence Comprehension scores are combined to yield a Reading Composite score. The Math Computation portion is timed (15 min), whereas the Sentence Comprehension, Word Reading and Spelling portions are terminated after 7, 10, and 10 consecutive failures, respectively.

The WRAT-4 was normed on a stratified representative sample of over 3000 individuals of ages 5–94 years. Administration requires 15–25 min for ages 5–7 years and 30–45 min for others. Raw scores are converted to age- and grade-based standard scores; percentiles, stanines, normal curve equivalents, and grade equivalents may be...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Harvey, P., Friedman, J., Bowie, C., Reichenberg, A., McGurk, S., Parrella, M., White, L., & Davis, K. (2006). Validity and stability of performance-based estimates of premorbid educational functioning in older patients with schizophrenia. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 28, 178–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Jastak, S., & Wilkinson, G. (1984). Wide range achievement test-revised. Wilmington: Jastak Associates.Google Scholar
  3. Johnstone, B., & Wilhelm, K. (1995). The longitudinal stability of the WRAT-R reading subtest: Is it an appropriate estimate of premorbid intelligence? Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 2, 282–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Karaken, D., Gur, R., & Saykin, A. (1995). Reading on the wide range achievement test-revised and parental education as predictors of IQ: Comparison with the Barona formula. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 10, 147–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Orme, D., Johnstone, B., Hanks, R., & Novack, T. (2004). The WRAT-3 reading subtest as a measure of premorbid intelligence among persons with brain injury. Rehabilitation Psychology, 49, 250–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Wide Range Achievement Test-4. Manual. (2006). Odessa: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  7. Wilkinson, G. S. (1993). Wide range achievement test – 3, administration manual. Wilmington: Wide Range.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Independent PracticeWynnewoodUSA