Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

Living Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test

  • Megan Becker
  • Daniel N. Allen
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-56782-2_184-3



The Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test (GOAT) is a 10-item scale that was designed to assess orientation and posttraumatic amnesia following traumatic brain injury (Levin et al. 1975, 1979, 1982). Posttraumatic amnesia, which is the state of disorientation and confusion following head injury, includes both anterograde and retrograde amnesia. The GOAT provides an assessment of anterograde amnesia (the memory of events that occurred immediately before brain injury) through patient recall of the event immediately preceding the injury and details regarding the event. Questions about patient recall and detailed description of the first event remembered following injury are also included to assess retrograde amnesia (memory of events immediately following traumatic brain injury). Orientation items include assessment of personal (name, city of birth, city of current residence), spatial (present location, date of admission, mode of transportation to treatment...

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References and Readings

  1. Bode, R. K., Heinemann, A. W., & Semik, P. (2000). Measurement properties of the Galveston Orientation Amnesia Test (GOAT) and improvement patterns during rehabilitation. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 15, 637–655.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Goldstein, F. C., & Levin, H. S. (1995). Post-traumatic and anterograde amnesia following closed head injury. In A. D. Baddeley, B. A. Wilson, & F. N. Watts (Eds.), Handbook of memory disorders (pp. 187–209). Oxford: Wiley.Google Scholar
  3. Hotz, G., Plante, E., Helm-Estabrooks, N., & Wolf Nelson, N. (2014). The importance of orientation in evaluating recovery in pediatric traumatic brain injury. International Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, S5, 1–5.Google Scholar
  4. Levin, H. S., Benton, A. L., & Grossman, R. G. (1982). Neurobehavioral consequences of traumatic brain injury. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Levin, H. S., O’Donnell, V. M., & Grossman, R. G. (1975). The Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test: A practical scale to assess cognition after head injury. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 167, 675–684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Levin, H. S., O'Donnell, V. M., & Grossman, R. G. (1979). The Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test: A practical scale to assess cognition after head injury. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 167, 675–684.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Nevada, Las VegasLas VegasUSA