Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

Living Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Abusive Head Trauma

  • Jennifer Ann Niskala Apps
  • Amy Heffelfinger
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-56782-2_1594-2

Synonyms

Short Description or Definition

Pediatric abusive head trauma (AHT) is a form of inflicted traumatic brain injury in an infant or small child due to blunt trauma, being shaken, or a combination of both. Rapid rotation and movement, acceleration and deceleration changes, of the brain within the cranial vault of a small child result in significant neural trauma. The National Center for Injury Prevention and Control defines pediatric abusive head trauma as “an injury to the skull or intracranial contents of an infant or young child (< 5 years of age) due to inflicted blunt impact and/or violent shaking.” This definition excludes unintentional injuries and penetrating trauma (Parks et al. 2012).

Categorization

A form of child maltreatment or abuse, AHT occurs as a result of a baby’s weak neck muscles in relation to its proportionally large head...

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References and Readings

  1. Barlow, K. M., Thomson, E., Johnson, D., & Minns, R. A. (2005). Late neurologic and cognitive sequelae of inflicted traumatic brain injury in infancy. Pediatrics, 116, 174–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Caffey, J. (1974). The whiplash-shaken infant syndrome: Manual shaking by the extremities with whiplash-induced intra cranial and intra ocular bleeding, linked with residual permanent damage and mental retardation. Pediatrics, 54(4), 396–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Ewing-Cobbs, L., Kramer, L., Prasad, M., Canales, D. N., Louis, P. T., Fletcher, J. M., Vollero, H., Landry, S. H., & Cheung, K. (1998). Neuroimaging, physical, and developmental findings after inflicted and noninflicted traumatic brain injury in young children. Pediatrics, 102(2), 300–307.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Hymel, K. P., Makoroff, K. L., Laskey, A. L., Conaway, M. R., & Blackman, J. A. (2007). Mechanisms, clinical presentations, injuries, and outcomes from inflicted versus noninflicted head trauma during infancy: Results of a prospective, multicentered, comparative study. Pediatrics, 119, 922–929.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Lopes, N. R. L., Eisenstein, E., & Williams, L. C. A. (2013). Abusive head trauma in children: A literature review. Journal de Pediatria, 89, 426–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Nadarasa, J., Deck, C., Meyer, F., Willinger, R., & Raul, J. S. (2014). Update on injury mechanisms in abusive head trauma – Shaken baby syndrome. Pediatric Radiology, 44(Suppl 4), S565–S570.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Narang, S., & Clarke, J. (2014). Abusive head trauma: Past, present, and future. Journal of Child Neurology, 29(12), 1747–1756.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Neurological Disorder & Stroke NINDS Shaken Baby Syndrome Information page. www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/shakenbaby
  9. Niederkrotenthaler, T., Xu, L., Parks, S. E., & Sugerman, D. E. (2013). Descriptive factors of abusive head trauma in young children – United States, 2000–2009. Child Abuse & Neglect, 37, 446–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Parks, S. E., Annest, J. L., Hill, H. A., & Karch, D. L. (2012). Pediatric abusive head trauma: Recommended definitions for public health surveillance and research. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.Google Scholar
  11. Ross, A. H., & Juarez, C. A. (2014). A brief history of fatal child maltreatment and neglect. Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology, 10, 413–422.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Shaken Baby Association, Inc. www.shakenbaby.net
  13. The National Center on SBS. www.dontshake.org

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Medicine, Children’s Hospital of Wisconsin/Medical College of WisconsinMilwaukeeUSA
  2. 2.Medical College of WisconsinMilwaukeeUSA