Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

Living Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan


  • Kelly BroxtermanEmail author
  • Natalie Wahmhoff
  • Elaine Clark
  • Alyssa Beukema
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-56782-2_1433-2



Acalculia is an acquired impairment in which people have difficulty performing mathematical tasks, such as adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing. Acalculia deficits can manifest in a wide variety of number processing and calculation abilities.


Generally, authors have agreed on two major distinctions: primary and secondary acalculia (Growth-Marnat 2000). These terms were first described by Berger in 1926 (Boller and Grafman 1983). Primary acalculia refers to a basic defect in computational abilities, not resulting from separate cognitive deficits. It is also known as anarithmetia. Deficits in primary acalculia include poor estimation, number comparison difficulties, and difficulty understanding procedural rules and numerical signs. In primary acalculia, these deficits will exist regardless of whether tasks are presented in an oral or written format (Ardila and Rosselli 2002).

Secondary acalculia refers to calculation...


Mathematical Task Calculation Ability Primary Deficit Wide Range Achievement Number Knowledge 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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References and Readings

  1. Ardila, A., Matute, E., & Inozemtseva, O. (2003). Progressive agraphia, acalculia, and anomia: A single-case report. Applied Neuropsychology, 10, 205–214.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ardila, A., & Rosselli, M. (2002). Acalculia and dyscalculia. Neuropsychology Review, 12, 179–231.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
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  6. Dehaene, S., Cohen, L., & Changeux, J. P. (1998). Neuronal network models of acalculia and prefrontal deficits. In R. W. Parks, D. S. Levine, & D. L. Long (Eds.), Fundamentals of neural network modeling: Neuropsychology and cognitive neuroscience (pp. 233–255). Cambridge, MA: MIT.Google Scholar
  7. Grafman, J., & Rickart, T. (2000). Acalculia. In M. J. Farah & T. E. Fienberg (Eds.), Patient based approaches to cognitive neurosciences: Issues in clinical and cognitive neuropsychology. Cambridge, MA: MIT.Google Scholar
  8. Growth-Marnat, G. (Ed.). (2000). Neuropsychological assessment in clinical practice. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  9. Scruggs, T. E., & Mastropieri, M. A. (2000). Acalculia. In Encyclopedia of special education (Vol. 1, 2nd ed., p. 27). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kelly Broxterman
    • 1
    Email author
  • Natalie Wahmhoff
    • 2
  • Elaine Clark
    • 2
  • Alyssa Beukema
    • 1
  1. 1.School PsychologyThe Chicago School of Professional PsychologyChicagoUSA
  2. 2. Department of Educational PsychologyUniversity of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA