Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

Living Edition
| Editors: Jeffrey Kreutzer, John DeLuca, Bruce Caplan

Parallel Forms

  • Glen E. Getz
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-56782-2_1229-3



Cognitive measures that are designed for repeated administration through the use of similar versions of the test material.

Current Knowledge

Patients often need to be evaluated on multiple occasions in order to examine change over the course of time. For example, repeated testing is important in assisting the documentation of deterioration following a diagnosis of progressive dementia or for monitoring the improvement following a closed head injury. Serial testing is not common in neuropsychological practice and have a utility in clinical, forensic, and research settings. However, practice effects of repeated testing can positively skew the results and thereby provide an inflation of patient’s performance. Parallel forms assist in the examination of cognitive improvement across time by altering the material that is presented in order to decrease practice effects without losing the gestalt of the measure that is being...

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References and Readings

  1. Beglinger, L. J., Gaydos, B., Tangphao, O., Duff, K., Karekan, D. A., Crawford, J., et al. (2005). Practice effects and use of alternate forms in serial neuropsychological testing. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 20, 517–529.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Benedict, R. H. B. (1997). Brief visuospatial memory test – Revised. Lutz: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  3. Benedict, R. H. B., & Zgaljardic, D. (1998). Practice effects during repeated administrations of memory tests with and without alternate forms. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 20, 339–352.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Brandt, J., & Benedict, R. H. B. (2001). Hopkins verbal learning test – Revised. Lutz: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  5. Fastenau, P. S., Hankins, W. T., McGinnis, C. M., Moy, T., & Richard, M. (2002). Effects of alternate forms on retest effects in clinical testing [Abstract]. Journal of International Neuropsychological Society, 7, 151.Google Scholar
  6. Heilbronner, R. L., Sweet, J. J., Attix, D. K., Krull, G. K., & Hart, R. P. (2010). Official position of the American academy of clinical neuropsychology on serial neuropsychological assessments: The utility and challenges of repeat test administrations in clinical and forensic contexts. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 24, 1267–1278.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryAllegheny General HospitalPittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Neuropsychology Specialty CareLLCPittsburghUSA