Carbohydrate-Responsive Histone Acetylation in Gene Body Regions

Carbohydrate-Inducible Histone Acetylation
  • Kazuki MochizukiEmail author
  • Natsuyo Hariya
  • Kazue Honma
  • Toshinao Goda
Reference work entry


Epigenetic memory is manifested by DNA methylation and histone modification in the chromatin. In the present review, we introduce two types of epigenetic model. The first is the general model, involving a transcription initiation reaction that is regulated by transcription factors and histone acetylation in the promoter/enhancer region. The model is generally an ON-OFF mechanism via the promoter/enhancer region. The second novel model is the transcription elongation reaction, which is triggered by acetylated histone-BRD4-P-TEFb in the gene body region. This novel epigenetic model regulates the efficiency of mRNA synthesis, for example, from 100% to 160% or from 100% to 60%. Major nutrients, including carbohydrates and those that signal energy balance in the body, many of which are associated with development of metabolic diseases, regulate the novel epigenetic model. In addition, carbohydrate signals enhance histone H3K4 methylation, but not histone H3K9 methylation, in the gene bodies of carbohydrate-inducible genes. Taken together, major nutrients, including carbohydrates and those that control energy balance in the body, alter epigenetics in gene body regions.


BRD4 Carbohydrate Epigenetics in gene body regions Epigenetics in promoter/enhancer regions Histone acetylation Histone H3K4 methylation Histone modifications Lifestyle related diseases P-TEFb Transcriptional elongation reaction Transcriptional initiation reaction 



ATPase H+ transporting V0 subunit d2


β-carotene oxygenase


Bromodomain containing 4


Cyclin dependent kinase


Caudal type homeobox


Chromodomain-helicase-DNA-binding protein


Carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein


C-type lectin domain family 4, member D


C-terminal domain


Dihydroxyacetone kinase 2 homolog


Fatty acid synthase


Cytochrome P450, family 8, subfamily B, polypeptide 1


General control of amino acid synthesis


Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide


Glucose transporter


Histone acetyl-transferase


Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1






Matrix metallopeptidase 12


Perilipin 5


RNA polymerase II


Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor


Positive transcription elongation factor b


Retinoic acid receptor


Spt-Ada-Gcn5 acetyltransferase


SET domain protein




Sodium-glucose cotransporter


Vitamin D receptor


General transcription factor IIH


Thyroid hormone responsive protein


Thyroid hormone receptor


Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2



Our work cited in the present review was supported by Grants-in-Aid for Young Scientists (22680054), for Scientific Research (26282023) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), the Takeda Science Foundation, and the Uehara Memorial Foundation. We thank Dr. Ozato Keiko from the National Institute of Health for providing the opportunity to study BRD4.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kazuki Mochizuki
    • 1
    Email author
  • Natsuyo Hariya
    • 2
  • Kazue Honma
    • 3
    • 4
  • Toshinao Goda
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Local Produce and Food Sciences, Faculty of Life and Environmental SciencesUniversity of YamanashiKofuJapan
  2. 2.Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Health and NutritionYamanashi Gakuin UniversityKofuJapan
  3. 3.Graduate School of Nutritional and Environmental SciencesUniversity of ShizuokaShizuokaJapan
  4. 4.Department of Nutrition, School of Food and Nutritional SciencesThe University of ShizuokaShizuokaJapan

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