Socioeconomics, Obesity, and Early-Life Nutrition on the Role of DNA Methylation in Biological Embedding

  • Christiana A. DemetriouEmail author
  • Karin van Veldhoven
  • Caroline Relton
  • Silvia Stringhini
  • Kyriacos Kyriacou
  • Paolo Vineis
Reference work entry


Early-life socioeconomic conditions, childhood obesity, and early-life nutrition are factors that have been associated with chronic disease in adult life.

The synthesis of current research relating to the biological embodiment of early-life exposures through DNA methylation provides some support to the involvement of DNA methylation in biological embedding and provides evidence for a mechanism through which early-life exposures can affect disease risk later in life.

More specifically, several studies on early-life socioeconomic conditions, childhood overweight/obesity, and early-life nutrition show DNA methylation effects that can, in some cases, persist for years after the exposure. The results of these studies are reviewed here.

This review highlights the plethora of proxies used for these exposures; the small differences observed in methylation, questioning their biological significance; and the lack of clarity regarding the direction and/or the size of some of the effects. In addition, and perhaps most importantly, publication bias cannot be ruled out, and the lack of replication of these results, especially given the lack of overlap between target regions, requires that these results are interpreted cautiously.


Biological embedding Thrifty phenotype hypothesis Developmental plasticity DNA methylation Epigenetics Exposome Early-life nutrition Early-life socioeconomic status Childhood obesity Childhood overweight Chronic disease 

List of Abbreviations


ATP-binding cassette, subfamily A (ABC1), member 1


Adiponectin, C1Q, and collagen domain containing


BolA family member 3


Caspase 10


Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 28


Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C


5′ – C – phosphate – G3′, cytosine and guanine separated by only one phosphate


Docosahexaenoic acid


Delta-like 1 homolog


Differentially methylated regions


Nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) or constitutive NOS (cNOS)


Erythropoietin-producing hepatoma receptor


Fas apoptotic inhibitory molecule 2


Fibroblast growth factor 12


FK506-binding protein 5


FLJ20433 gene


GNAS antisense RNA (nonprotein coding)


Glucocorticoid receptor


H19 gene for a long noncoding RNA


Hypoxia-inducible factor 3A


Human leukocyte antigen

HSD11B2 or HSD2

Hydroxysteroid (11-beta) dehydrogenase 2


Insulin-insulin-like growth factor 1


Insulin-like growth factor 2 (somatomedin A)


Interleukin 10


Interleukin 17F


Insulin-insulin-like growth factor 2 read-through


Induced pluripotent stem cells




Long interspersed nuclear elements 1


Luminometric methylation assay


Mannose-binding lectin 2


Maternally expressed 3 (nonprotein coding)


Nidogen 1




Nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group C member 1


Paired box gene 8


Paternally expressed 10


Pleomorphic adenoma gene-like 1


Pro-opiomelanocortin gene


Proline rich 5 like


Red blood cells


Retinoid X receptor alpha


Satellite 2 tandemly repeating, noncoding DNA


Socioeconomic status


Solute carrier family 6 member 4


SLIT- and NTRK-like family member 1


Small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide N


Sarcoglycan epsilon


Tumor-associated calcium signal transducer 2


Transforming growth factor beta induced


TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 3


Transducin-like enhancer of split 1 gene


Toll-like receptor 2


Thymic stromal lymphopoietin


WD repeat domain 5


Zinc finger FYVE-type containing 28


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christiana A. Demetriou
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Karin van Veldhoven
    • 3
  • Caroline Relton
    • 4
    • 5
  • Silvia Stringhini
    • 6
  • Kyriacos Kyriacou
    • 7
  • Paolo Vineis
    • 3
  1. 1.Neurology Clinic DThe Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics, Ayios DhometiosNicosiaCyprus
  2. 2.The Cyprus School of Molecular MedicineThe Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics, Ayios DhometiosNicosiaCyprus
  3. 3.Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public HealthImperial College LondonLondonUK
  4. 4.MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit, School of Social and Community MedicineUniversity of BristolBristolUK
  5. 5.Institute of Genetic MedicineNewcastle UniversityNewcastle upon TyneUK
  6. 6.Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (IUMSP)Lausanne University HospitalLausanneSwitzerland
  7. 7.Department of Electron Microscopy/Molecular PathologyThe Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics, The Cyprus School of Molecular Medicine, The Cyprus School of MolecularNicosiaCyprus

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