Advertisement

High-Precision Spectrographs for Exoplanet Research: CORAVEL, ELODIE, CORALIE, SOPHIE and HARPS

  • Francesco PepeEmail author
  • François Bouchy
  • Michel Mayor
  • Stéphane Udry
Reference work entry

Abstract

In this chapter, we will present the concepts, designs, and performances of several generations of simultaneous-reference spectrographs that have made the history of exoplanet discoveries by means of the Doppler technique. It is not possible to understand the strengths of this category of spectrographs without understanding first the revolutionary approach of CORAVEL that set the path for the next generation of instruments using CCDs, i.e., ELODIE and CORALIE. These instruments were extremely successful (e.g., with the discovery of 51 Peg b), it however quickly became clear that higher precision would be necessary in order not to remain stuck with Jupiter- and Saturn-mass planets only. The ELODIE/CORALIE concept was optimized in order to reach best possible performances. This process led to the development of HARPS that has become, through the tens of discoveries of Super-Earths and Neptunes, the new reference for high-precision Doppler velocity measurements. The success of HARPS had to be transposed to the northern hemisphere, an ambition that resulted first in the manufacturing of SOPHIE and later of HARPS-N. This work was finally the baseline for the development of ESPRESSO aiming at the next level of precision. We refer, however, to the chapter dedicated to ESPRESSO in this same handbook for a detailed description.

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work has been carried out within the frame of the National Centre for Competence in Research PlanetS supported by the SNSF. The authors acknowledge the financial support of the SNSF. The authors would like to thank in the most sincere way all the persons who have contributed through their passionate and competent, but often unapparent, work of administration, management, engineering, technology, programming, etc., to the great scientific success of the described instruments.

References

  1. Aigrain S, Pont F, Zucker S (2012) A simple method to estimate radial velocity variations due to stellar activity using photometry. Mon Not R Astron Soc 419:3147ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Almenara JM, Daminai C, Bouchy F et al (2015) SOPHIE velocimetry of Kepler transit candidates. XV. KOI-614b, KOI-206b, and KOI-680b: a massive warm Jupiter orbiting a G0 metallic dwarf and two highly inflated planets with a distant companion around evolved F-type stars. Astron Astrophys 575:71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alonso R, Auvergne M, Baglin A et al (2008) Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission. II. CoRoT-Exo-2b: a transiting planet around an active G star. Astron Astrophys 482:L21ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anglada-Escudé G, Amado PJ, Barnes J et al (2016) A terrestrial planet candidate in a temperate orbit around Proxima Centauri. Nature 536(7617):437–440ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Avila G, Buzzoni B, Casse M (1998) Fiber characterization and compact scramblers at ESO. Opt Astron Instrum 3355:900–904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baranne A, Mayor M, Poncet JL (1979) Coravel – a new tool for radial velocity measurements. Vistas Astron 23:279–316ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baranne A, Queloz D, Mayor M et al (1996) ELODIE: a spectrograph for accurate radial velocity measurements. Astron Astrophys Suppl 119:373–390ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barge P, Baglin A, Auvergne M et al (2008) Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission. I. CoRoT-Exo-1b: a low-density short-period planet around a G0V star. Astron Astrophys 482:L17ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Benz W, Mayor M (1981) A new method for determining the rotation of late spectral type stars. Astron Astrophys 93:235ADSGoogle Scholar
  10. Benz W, Mayor M (1984) Photoelectric rotational velocities of late-type dwarfs. Astron Astrophys 138:183ADSGoogle Scholar
  11. Boisse I, Moutou C, Vidal-Madjar A et al (2009) Stellar activity of planetary host star HD189733. Astron Astrophys 495:959ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Boisse I, Eggenberger A, Santos NC et al (2010) The SOPHIE search for northern extrasolar planets. III. A Jupiter-mass companion around HD 109246. Astron Astrophys 523:88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Boisse I, Pepe F, Perrier C et al (2012) The SOPHIE search for northern extrasolar planets. V. Follow-up of ELODIE candidates: Jupiter-analogs around sun-like stars. Astron Astrophys 545:55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bonfils X, Delfosse X, Udry S et al (2013) The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets. XXXI. The M-dwarf sample. Astron Astrophys 549:75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bouchy F, Pepe F, Queloz D (2001) Fundamental photon noise limit to radial velocity measurements. A&A 374:733–739ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bouchy F, Udry S, Mayor M et al (2005) ELODIE metallicity-biased search for transiting hot Jupiters. II. A very hot Jupiter transiting the bright K star HD 189733. Astron Astrophys 444:L15ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bouchy F, Hébrard G, Udry S et al (2009a) The SOPHIE search for northern extrasolar planets. I. A companion around HD 16760 with mass close to the planet/brown-dwarf transition. Astron Astrophys 505:853ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bouchy F, Isambert J, Lovis C et al (2009b) Charge transfer inefficiency effect for high-precision radial velocity measurements. EAS Publ Ser 37:247–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bouchy F, Hebb L, Skillen I et al (2010) WASP-21b: a hot-Saturn exoplanet transiting a thick disc star. Astron Astrophys 519:9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bouchy F, Bonomo AS, Santerne A et al (2011a) SOPHIE velocimetry of Kepler transit candidates. III. KOI-423b: an 18 MJup transiting companion around an F7IV star. Astron Astrophys 533:83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bouchy F, Deleuil M, Guillot T et al (2011b) Transiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission. XV. CoRoT-15b: a brown-dwarf transiting companion. Astron Astrophys 525:68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bouchy F, Diaz R, Hébrard G et al (2013) SOPHIE+: first results of an octagonal-section fiber for high-precision radial velocity measurements. Astron Astrophys 549:49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Brown TM (1990) High precision Doppler measurements via echelle spectroscopy. In: CCDs in astronomy; Proceedings of the conference, 6–8 Sept 1989 (A91-45976 19-33). Astronomical Society of the Pacific, San Francisco/Tucson, pp 335–344Google Scholar
  24. Butler RP, Marcy GW Williams E et al (1996) Attaining Doppler precision of 3 ms−1. Publ Astron Soc Pac 108:500ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Campbell B, Walker G (1979) Precision radial velocities with an absorption cell. PASP 91:540ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Charbonneau D, Brown TM, Latham DW, Mayor M (2000) Detection of planetary transits across a sun-like star. Astrophys J 529:45ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Charbonneau D, Berta ZK, Irwin J et al (2009) A super-earth transiting a nearby low-mass star. Nature 462(7275):891–894ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Collier Cameron A, Bouchy F, Hébrard G et al (2007) WASP-1b and WASP-2b: two new transiting exoplanets detected with SuperWASP and SOPHIE. Mon Not R Astron Soc 375:951ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Courcol B, Bouchy F, Pepe F et al (2015) The SOPHIE search for northern extrasolar planets. VII. A warm Neptune orbiting HD 164595. Astron Astrophys 581:38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Da Silva R, Udry S, Bouchy F et al (2006) Elodie metallicity-biased search for transiting hot Jupiters. I. Two hot Jupiters orbiting the slightly evolved stars HD 118203 and HD 149143. Astron Astrophys 446:717ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Diaz R, Santerne A, Sahlmann J et al (2012) The SOPHIE search for northern extrasolar planets. IV. Massive companions in the planet-brown dwarf boundary. Astron Astrophys 538:113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Diaz RF, Montagnier G, Leconte J et al (2014) SOPHIE velocimetry of Kepler transit candidates. XIII. KOI-189 b and KOI-686 b: two very low-mass stars in long-period orbits. Astron Astrophys 572:109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dressing C, Charbonneau D, Dumusque X et al (2015) The mass of Kepler-93b and the composition of terrestrial planets. Astrophys J 800(2):7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dumusque X, Pepe F, Lovis C et al (2012) An earth-mass planet orbiting α Centauri B. Nature 491:207–211ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dumusque X, Bonomo AS, Haywood RD et al (2014) The Kepler-10 planetary system revisited by HARPS-N: a hot rocky world and a solid Neptune-mass planet. Astrophys J 789(2):14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Felgett P (1953) Opt Acta 2:9ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Griffin RF (1967) A photoelectric radial-velocity spectrometer. Astrophys J 148:465ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hebb L, Collier-Cameron A, Loeillet B et al (2009) WASP-12b: the hottest transiting extrasolar planet yet discovered. Astrophys J 693:1920ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hébrard G, Bouchy F, Pont F et al (2008) Misaligned spin-orbit in the XO-3 planetary system? Astron Astrophys 488:763ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hébrard G, Bonfils X, Ségransan D et al (2010) The SOPHIE search for northern extrasolar planets. II. A multiple planet system around HD 9446. Astron Astrophys 513:69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hébrard G, Santerne A, Montagnier G et al (2014) Characterization of the four new transiting planets KOI-188b, KOI-195b, KOI-192b, and KOI-830b. Astron Astrophys 572:93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Henry GW, Marcy G, Butler RP, Vogt S (2000) A transiting “51 Peg-like” planet. Astrophys J 529:41ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hunter TR, Ramsey LW (1992) Scrambling properties of optical fibers and the performance of a double scrambler. Astron Soc Pac 104:1244–1251ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Latham DW, Stefanik RP, Mazeh T, Mayor M, Burki G (1989) The unseen companion of HD114762 – a probable brown dwarf. Nature 339:38ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lovis C, Pepe F (2007) A new list of thorium and argon spectral lines in the visible. A&A 468(3):1115–1121ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lovis C et al (2006) An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets. Nature 441:305–309ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lovis C, Mayor M, Bouchy F et al. (2009) Towards the characterization of the hot Neptune/super-Earth population around nearby bright stars. Transiting Planets. Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union, IAU symposium, vol 253, pp 502–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lovis C, Ségransan D, Mayor M et al (2011) The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets. XXVIII. Up to seven planets orbiting HD 10180: probing the architecture of low-mass planetary systems. Astron Astrophys 528:16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Marmier M, Ségransan D, Udry S et al (2013) The CORALIE survey for southern extrasolar planets. XVII. New and updated long period and massive planets. Astron Astrophys 551:A90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Martins JHC, Santos N, Figueira P et al (2015) Evidence for a spectroscopic direct detection of reflected light from 51 Pegasi b. Astron Astrophys 576:9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Mayor M (1980) Metal abundance of F and G dwarfs determined by the radial velocity scanner CORAVEL. Astron Astrophys 87:1ADSGoogle Scholar
  52. Mayor M, Queloz D (1995) A Jupiter-mass companion to a solar-type star. Nature 378(6555):355–359ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mayor M, Pepe F, Queloz D et al (2003) Setting new standards with HARPS. The Messenger (ISSN0722–6691) 114:20–24ADSGoogle Scholar
  54. Mayor M, Udry S, Lovis C et al (2009) The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets. XIII a planetary system with 3 super-earths (4.2, 6.9 and 9.3 Mearths). Astron Astrophys 493(2):639–644ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mayor M, Marmier M, Lovis C et al (2011) The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets XXXIV. Occurrence, mass distribution and orbital properties of super-earths and Neptune-mass planets. arXiv 1109:2497ADSGoogle Scholar
  56. Mazeh T, Naef D, Torres G, Latham DW et al (2000) The spectroscopic orbit of the planetary companion transiting HD209458. Astrophys J 532:55ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. McArthur BE, Endl M, Cochran WD et al (2004) Detection of a Neptune-Mass Planet in the ρ Cancri System Using the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. The Astrophysical Journal 614:L81ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Motalebi F, Udry S, Gillon M et al (2015) The HARPS-N rocky planet search. I. HD 219134b, a transiting rocky planet in a multi-planet system at 6.5 pc from the sun. Astron Astrophys 584:72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Moutou C, Hébrard G, Bouchy F et al (2009) Photometric and spectroscopic detection of the primary transit of the 111-day-period planet HD 80 606 b Astronomy and Astrophysics 498:L5ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Moutou C, Hébrard G, Bouchy F et al (2014) The SOPHIE search for northern extrasolar planets. VI. Three new hot Jupiters in multi-planet extrasolar systems. Astron Astrophys 563:22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Paresce F, Renzini A (1997) The search for extrasolar planets at ESO. The Messenger 90:15–18ADSGoogle Scholar
  62. Pepe F (2001) HARPS Final design and performance report, ESO Archive 3M6-TRE-HAR-33100-0013, 28 Feb 2001Google Scholar
  63. Pepe F, Mayor M, Rupprecht G et al (2002) HARPS: ESO’s coming planet searcher. Chasing exoplanets with the La Silla 3.6-m telescope. The Messenger (ISSN 0722-6691) 110:9–14ADSGoogle Scholar
  64. Pepe F, Mayor M, Queloz D et al (2004) The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets. I. HD 330075 b: a new “hot Jupiter”. A&A 423:385–389ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Pepe F, Cameron AC, Latham DW et al (2013b) An earth-sized planet with an earth-like density. Nature 503(7476):377–380ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Pepe F, Lovis C, Ségransan D et al (2013a) The HARPS search for earth-like planets in the habitable zone. I. Very low-mass planets around HD 20794, HD 85512, and HD 192310. Astron Astrophys 534:16Google Scholar
  67. Pepe F, Molar P, Cristiani S et al (2013b) ESPRESSO: the next European exoplanet hunter. Astron Nachr 335(1):8ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Pepe F, Ehrenreich D, Meyer M (2014) Instrumentation for the detection and characterization of exoplanets. Nature 513(7518):358–366ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Perrier C, Sivan JP, Naef D et al (2003) The ELODIE survey for northern extra-solar planets. I. Six new extra-solar planet candidates. Astron Astrophys 410:1039ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Perruchot S, Kohler D, Bouchy F et al (2008) The SOPHIE spectrograph: design and technical key-points for high throughput and high stability. Proc SPIE 7014:12Google Scholar
  71. Perruchot S, Bouchy F, Chazelas B et al (2011) Higher-precision radial velocity measurements with the SOPHIE spectrograph using octagonal-section fibers. Proc SPIE 8151:815115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Pollacco D, Skillen I, Collier Cameron A et al (2006) The WASP project and SuperWASP camera. Astrophys Space Sci 304:253–255ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Queloz D, Bouchy F, Moutou C et al (2009) The CoRoT-7 planetary system: two orbiting super-earths. Astron Astrophys 506(1):303–319ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Queloz D, Mayor M, Udry S et al (2011) From CORALIE to HARPS. The way towards 1 m s−1 precision Doppler measurements. The Messenger (ISSN 0722-6691) 90:15–18Google Scholar
  75. Rey J, Hébrard G, Bouchy F et al (2017) The SOPHIE search for northern extrasolar planets. XII. Three giant planets suitable for astrometric mass determination with Gaia. Astron Astrophys 601:9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Ricker G, Winn J, Vanderspek R, Latham DW, Bakos G et al (2015) Transiting exoplanet survey satellite (TESS). J Astron Telesc Instrum Syst 1:014003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Santerne A, Diaz RF, Bouchy F et al (2011) SOPHIE velocimetry of Kepler transit candidates. II. KOI-428b: a hot Jupiter transiting a subgiant F-star. Astron Astrophys 528:63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Santerne A, Diaz RF, Moutou C et al (2012) SOPHIE velocimetry of Kepler transit candidates. VII. A false-positive rate of 35% for Kepler close-in giant candidates. Astron Astrophys 545:7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Santerne A, Moutou C, Tsantaki M et al (2016) SOPHIE velocimetry of Kepler transit candidates. XVII. Astron Astrophys 587, 64Google Scholar
  80. Santos NC, Israelian G, Mayor M (2001) The metal-rich nature of stars with planets. Astron Astrophys 373:1019ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Santos NC, Israelian G, Mayor M, Rebolo R, Udry S (2003) Statistical properties of exoplanets. II. Metallicity, orbital parameters, and space velocities. Astron Astrophys 398:363ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Santos NC, Bouchy F, Mayor M et al (2004a) The HARPS survey for southern extra-solar planets II. A 14 earth-masses exoplanet around μ Arae. A&A 426:L19–L23ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Santos NC, Israelian G, Mayor M (2004b) Spectroscopic (Fe/H) for 98 extrasolar planet-host stars.Exploring the probability of planetary formation. Astron Astrophys 415:1153ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Ségransan D, Udry S, Mayor M et al (2010) The CORALIE survey for southern extrasolar planets. XVI. Discovery of a planetary system around HD147018 and of two long period and massive planets orbiting HD171238 and HD204313. Astron Astrophys 511:A45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Shporer A, Bakos G, Bouchy F et al (2009) HAT-P-9b: a low-density planet transiting a moderately faint F star. Astrophys J 690:1393ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Tamuz O, Ségransan D, Udry S et al (2008) The CORALIE survey for southern extra-solar planets. XV. Discovery of two eccentric planets orbiting HD4113 and HD156846. Astron Astrophys 480:33ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Udry S, Mayor M, Naef D et al (2000) The CORALIE survey for southern extra-solar planets. II. The short-period planetary companions to HD75289 and HD130322. Astron Astrophys 356:590ADSGoogle Scholar
  88. Udry S, Bonfils X, Delfosse X et al (2007) The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets. XI. Super-Earths (5 and 8 M⊕) in a 3-planet system. Astron Astrophys 469(3):L43–L47ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Wheatley P, West R, Goad M et al (2017) The Next Generation Transit Survey (NGTS). Mon Not R Astron Soc 469:2361. (in press)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Wyttenbach A, Ehrenreich D, Lovis C et al (2015) Spectrally resolved detection of sodium in the atmosphere of HD 189733b with the HARPS spectrograph. Astron Astrophys 577:13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Wyttenbach A, Lovis C, Ehrenreich D (2017) Hot exoplanet atmospheres resolved with transit spectroscopy (HEARTS). I. Detection of hot neutral sodium at high altitudes on WASP-49b. Astron Astrophys 602:14CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Francesco Pepe
    • 1
    Email author
  • François Bouchy
    • 2
    • 3
  • Michel Mayor
    • 4
  • Stéphane Udry
    • 4
  1. 1.Département d’AstronomieObservatoire de l’Université de GenéveVersoixSwitzerland
  2. 2.Département d’AstronomieUniversité de GenéveVersoixSwitzerland
  3. 3.Observatoire astronomique de l’Université de GenéveVersoixSwitzerland
  4. 4.Département d’AstronomieUniversité de GenéveVersoixSwitzerland

Section editors and affiliations

  • Norio Narita
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Graduate School of Science, Department of AstronomyUniversity of TokyoTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Exoplanet Detection Project OfficeNational Astronomical Observatory of JapanTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Exoplanet Detection Project OfficeAstrobiology CenterTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations