LC-MS/MS Determination of Pesticide Residues in Fruits and Vegetables

  • Anna StachniukEmail author
Living reference work entry
Part of the Reference Series in Phytochemistry book series (RSP)


A proper diet is commonly regarded as one of the most important factors determining one’s health. A key role in such a diet is played by unprocessed food of plant origin, mainly fruits and vegetables, as they contain many important dietary bioactive compounds such as polyphenols, carotenoids, fiber, antioxidants, several important vitamins, and minerals. Despite the nutritional benefit, they may also contain substances that adversely affect human health. Pesticides constitute a special group of contaminants as even small amounts of these substances can result in acute poisoning, lead to cancer, and have an adverse impact on the endocrine, immune, and nervous system. A considerable number of pesticides have a harmful effect already in low concentrations, within the range of μg kg−1 and below μg kg−1; hence, there is a great need for identifying and determining them by means of highly selective and sensitive methods. In the analysis of pesticide residue, similarly to the analysis of other food contaminants, there is a clear tendency to prepare multiresidue methods that enable monitoring a large number of compounds in a great number and variety of samples. Most multiresidue methods reported for fruits and vegetables in the last decade are based mostly on the use of liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), which is the technique of choice for the majority of pesticides and their metabolites nowadays.


Pesticides Fruits and Vegetables Liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry 



Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization


Atmospheric pressure ionization


Accelerated solvent extraction


Octadecylated silica bounded stationary phase


Octasilyl silica bounded stationary phase


Conservative homogenizing extraction and multifunction adsorption cleanup


Collision-induced dissociation


Carbon nanotubes


Dispersive solid phase extraction


Electrospray ionization


European union


Gas chromatography


Graphitized carbon black


Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer


Gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometer


High-performance liquid chromatography


High-resolution mass spectrometry


Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer


Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometer


Liquid–liquid extraction


Microwave-assisted extraction


Maximum residue level


Multiple reaction monitoring


Mass spectrometry


Matrix solid phase dispersion


Multiwalled carbon nanotubes


Organophospohorus pesticides


Primary–secondary amine




Triple quadrupoles


Quadrupole-time of flight


Quadrupole-linear ion trap


Quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, safe


Scan monitoring


Supercritical-fluid extraction


Selected ion monitoring


Solid phase extraction


Solid phase microextraction


Selected reaction monitoring


Single-tube extraction with multisorbent impurity trapping


Single-walled carbon nanotubes


Total ion current


Time of flight


Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography


World health organization



Author gratefully acknowledges the use of the facilities and services of the Center for Interdisciplinary Research at The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Poland, co-funded by the European Union from the European Regional Development Fund in the frame of the Operational Programme Development of Eastern Poland 2007–2013 (POPW.01.03.00-06-003/09-00). This work was supported by the Polish National Science Centre via the research project DEC-2017/01/X/ST4/00722.I also acknowledge assistance in preparation of tables provided by Ms Agata Surma.


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© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Separation and Spectroscopic Method Applications, Center for Interdisciplinary ResearchThe John Paul II Catholic University of LublinLublinPoland

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