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Dietary Phenolic Compounds in Biological Samples: Current Challenges in Analytical Chemistry

  • Maike Passon
Living reference work entry
Part of the Reference Series in Phytochemistry book series (RSP)

Abstract

Phenolic compounds are bioactive molecules relevant in plant-derived foods and are associated with beneficial health effects in humans. The metabolism of these phytonutrients comprises of the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion and is investigated in in vivo intervention or in vitro cell culture studies. Blood and urine samples are collected during animal or human trials, and matrix effects caused by high protein and salt concentration are a major challenge during analysis. This chapter describes the context between the matrix effects which arise during phenolic compound analysis from biological samples and possible analytical techniques to handle these challenges. Difficulties arise from interfering matrix compounds, low concentrations of chemically heterogeneous metabolites, and the lack of reference compounds. Therefore, interactions of phenolic compounds with plasma proteins are reviewed, as well as ion suppression as one of the most common matrix effects during LC-MS analysis. Frequently used analytical techniques for sample preparation, compound synthesis, separation, and detection are described in this chapter.

Keywords

Polyphenols Biological samples Serum albumin interactions Matrix effect SPE LC-MS 

Abbreviations

ADME

Absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion

APCI

Atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization

BSA

Bovine serum albumin

CCS

Collision cross-section

CE

Capillary electrophoresis

CEAD

Coulometric electrode-array detection

COMT

Catechol-O-methyltransferase

DMF

Dimethylformamide

EC

Epicatechin

ECG

Epicatechin-3-gallate

EGC

Epigallocatechin

EGCG

Epigallocatechin-3-gallate

ESI

Electrospray ionization

HILIC

Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography

HSA

Human serum albumin

IT

Ion trap

LC

Liquid chromatography

m/z

Mass-to-charge ratio

MALDI

Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization

MRM

Multiple reaction monitoring

MRP

Multidrug resistance protein family

MS

Mass spectrometry

NMR

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

NP

Normal-phase

QqQ

Triple quadrupole

RP

Reversed-phase

SIM

Selected ion monitoring

SPE

Solid-phase extraction

SULT

Sulfotransferase

TFA

Trifluoroacetic acid

ToF

Time-of-flight

UGT

Uridine-5′-diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases

(U)HPLC

(Ultra)-High-performance liquid chromatography

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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Nutritional and Food Sciences, Molecular Food TechnologyUniversity of BonnBonnGermany

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