Promoting Green Skills in the Caribbean: A Grenada–Canada Partnership to Educate and Train the Sustainable Development Practitioner for the Twenty-First Century

  • Pierre-Luc GagnonEmail author
  • John N. Telesford
Reference work entry
Part of the Springer International Handbooks of Education book series (SIHE)


This chapter analyzes an institutional partnership (CAR-11) between two Canadian institutions and a Caribbean institution to develop a program in Environmental Sustainability Practices. The chapter starts by providing an overview of recent trends in international educational partnerships. The review shows that the scope of international partnerships has widened over the last decades, moving from the traditional student exchange model to longer-term institutional collaborations including, for instance, curriculum building and capacity development. The second section introduces the CAR-11 project in detail, including the project’s objectives, the partner selection process, and the main collaborative activities that have taken place during the partnership. The third section looks at some of the challenges that surfaced during the partnership’s implementation. The first challenge was allowing partners to work in partnership with each other and to reach a consensus on key concepts and methodologies. The second challenge turned out to be mitigating sociocultural differences between partners. The third challenge was the achievement of a balance between individual and institutional commitment. Perhaps because partnerships are formalized between institutions, and not individuals, there is a tendency to minimize the importance of individuals in ensuring the success of a partnership. The chapter concludes by stating that, to be successful, international educational partnerships need to be flexible enough to adjust to changing circumstances. This flexibility is made possible by promoting reciprocity between partner institutions, implementing initiatives that are in tune with national sociocultural contexts and by facilitating the involvement of individuals with a thorough understanding of their partners’ needs and realities.


Grenada Canada International partnership Competency-based approach Sustainable development Applied research 


  1. Amey, Marilyn J. 2010. Administrative perspectives on international partnerships. In International collaborations: Opportunities, strategies, challenges, New directions for higher education, ed. Pamela L. Eddy, vol. 150, 57–67. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  2. Amey, Marilyn J., Pamela L. Eddy, and C. Casey Ozaki. 2007. Demands for partnership and collaboration in higher education: A model. In Collaborations across educational sectors, New directions for community colleges, ed. M.J. Amey, vol. 139, 5–16. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  3. Barr, Robert B. et John Tagg. 1995. From teaching to learning: A new paradigm for undergraduate education Change. November/December: 13-25.Google Scholar
  4. (C-EFE) CARICOM Education for Employment Program. 2013a. Request for proposals for institutional partnerships. Round 3. T.A. Marryshow Community College (TAMCC).Google Scholar
  5. (C-EFE) CARICOM Education for Employment Program. 2013b. Institutional partnership. institution profile and terms of reference. T.A. Marryshow Community College (TAMCC).Google Scholar
  6. (C-EFE) CARICOM Education for Employment Program. 2014. C-EFE second Caribbean college. Engagement guidelines for institutional partnerships. Candadian International Development Agency.Google Scholar
  7. Coleman, and S. James. 1988. Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology 94: S95–S120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cooper, Joanne, and Rikki Mitsunaga. 2010. Faculty perspectives on international education: The nested realities of faculty collaborations. In International collaborations: Opportunities, strategies, challenges, New directions for higher education, ed. Pamela L. Eddy, vol. 150, 69–81. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  9. Crouch, Colin, Wolfgang Streeck, Robert Boyer, Bruno Amable, Peter A. Hall, and Gregory Jackson. 2005. Dialogue on ‘Institutional complementarity and political economy’. Socio-Economic Review 3: 359–382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. de Wit, Hans. 2002. Internationalization of higher education in the Unites States of America and Europe: A historical, comparative, and conceptual analysis. Westport: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  11. Doney, Patricia M., Joseph P. Cannon, and Michael R. Mullen. 1998. Understanding the influence of national culture on the development of trust. Academy of Management Review 23(3): 601–620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dovey, Ken. 2009. The role of trust in innovation. The Learning Organization 16 (4): 311–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Eddy, Pamela L. 2010a. Special issue: Partnerships and collaboration in higher education. ASHE Higher Education Report vol. 36 (2): 1–115.Google Scholar
  14. Eddy, Pamela L., ed. 2010b. International collaborations: Opportunities, strategies, challenges, New directions for higher education. Vol. 150. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.Google Scholar
  15. Eisenhardt, Kathleen M., and Claudia Bird Schoonhoven. 1996. Resource-based view of strategic alliance formation: Strategic and social effects in entrepreneurial firms. Organizational Science 7 (2): 136–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gulati, Ranjay. 1995. Social structure and alliance formation patterns: A longitudinal analysis. Administrative Science Quarterly 40 (4): 619–652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hébert, Yvonne, and Ali A. Abdi. 2013. Critical perspectives on international education: Redefinitions, knowledge-making, mobilities and changing the world. In Critical perspectives on international education, ed. Yvonne Hébert and Ali A. Abdi, 1–41. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Heffernan, Troy, and David Poole. 2004. “Catch me I’m falling”: Key factors in the deterioration of offshore education partnerships. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management 26(1): 75–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hill, Charles W.L. 1997. International business: Competing in the global market place. Chicago: Irwin.Google Scholar
  20. Kinser, Kevin, and Madeleine F. Green. 2009. The power of partnerships: A transatlantic dialogue. New York: American Council on Education.Google Scholar
  21. Knight, Jane. 2002. Trade in higher education services: Implications of GATS. London: Observatory on Borderless Education.Google Scholar
  22. March, James G., and Johan P. Olsen. 2008. Elaborating the new institutionalism. An institutional perspective. In The Oxford handbook of political institutions, ed. Sarah A. Binder, R.A.W. Rhodes, and Bert A. Rockman, 3–20. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Odom, Randall Y., W. Randy Boxx, and Mark G. Dunn. 1990. Organizational cultures, commitment, satisfaction, and cohesion. Public Productivity & Management Review 14 (2): 157–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Orr, David. 2004. Earth in mind: On education, environment and the human prospect. Seattle, Washington: Island Press.Google Scholar
  25. Quebec. 2005. Program development: Vocational training and technical training. Facilitation guide for job analysis workshops. Reference document. Ministry of Education, Recreation and Sports.Google Scholar
  26. Sakamoto, Robin, and David W. Chapman. 2011. Expanding across borders. The growth of cross-border partnerships in higher education. In Cross-border partnerships in higher education. Strategies and issues, ed. Robin Sakamoto and David W. Chapman, 3–15. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  27. Sarkar, M.B., Echambadi Raj, S. Tamer Cavusgil, and Preet S. Aulakh. 2001. The influence of complementarity, compatibility, and relationship capital on alliance performance. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 29 (4): 358–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sutton, Susan Buck, and Daniel Obst. 2011. The changing landscape of international partnerships. In Developing strategic international partnerships. Models for initiating and sustaining innovative institutional linkages, ed. Susan Buck Sutton and Daniel Obst, xiii–xxiii. New York: Institute of International Education.Google Scholar
  29. Triandis, Harry C. 1972. The analysis of subjective culture. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  30. (UNEP) United Nations Environment Program. 2014. Emerging issues for small island developing states. Results of the UNEP foresight process. Advance copy. Available online:
  31. Varghese, N.V. 2007. Globalization of higher education and cross-border student mobility. New York: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, International Institute for Educational Planning.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre d’initiation à la recherche et d’aide au développement durable (CIRADD)Cégep de la Gaspésie et des Îles - Campus de Carleton-sur-MerQuebecCanada
  2. 2.School of Continuing EducationT. A. Marryshow Community CollegeSt. George’sGrenada
  3. 3.Institute of Islands StudiesUniversiety of Prince Edward IslandCharlottetownCanada

Personalised recommendations