Advertisement

Dimensions of Collaboration Between Community Colleges and Universities in Facilitating Attainment of Baccalaureate Degrees in Career and Technical Education

Reference work entry
Part of the Springer International Handbooks of Education book series (SIHE)

Abstract

Within the past two decades, many jurisdictions have tried to make the baccalaureate degree more attainable for a student who begins postsecondary education in a career or technical program in a community college. Two different strategies have been employed for achieving this goal: developing collaborative arrangements between community colleges and universities and allowing community colleges to award baccalaureate degrees. This chapter focuses on the first of these strategies and describes the approaches that have been developed for combining the contributions of community colleges and universities in the delivery of baccalaureate level vocational education. Finding existing typologies of models of collaboration between community colleges and universities deficient, this chapter instead identifies dimensions of collaboration which can be combined in different ways to create alternative models. This chapter draws particularly upon the experience of Canada. Among OECD member countries, Canada has the highest proportion of adults whose highest level of education is a community college credential. In order to facilitate baccalaureate degree attainment for those graduates, recently it has developed some innovative forms of collaboration between community colleges and universities. The author’s conclusion is that while the new arrangements offer valuable opportunities for students to combine the learning resources of the two types of postsecondary institutions, their usefulness is constrained by two problems: inflated admission requirements and inadequate amounts of transfer credit. Accordingly, there is still a need to increase access to the baccalaureate degrees that community colleges themselves offer.

Keywords

Transfer Collaboration Partnerships Baccalaureate degree attainment Applied degree 

References

  1. Association of Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology of Ontario. 1998. Leading economic development across Ontario: Achievements and opportunities. Toronto: Author.Google Scholar
  2. Baker, Donald N. 2002. On postsecondary quality assurance in Ontario: Introduction of the Postsecondary Education Quality Assessment Board, 2001–02. Paper presented at the Fourth International Conference on Assessing Quality in Higher Education, University of Vienna, 24 July.Google Scholar
  3. Ballinger, Marcia J., and John R. Crooks. 2013. The University partnership at Lorain County Community College. In Alternative pathways to the baccalaureate, ed. Nancy Remington and Ronald Remington, 162–177. Sterling: Stylus Publishing, LLC.Google Scholar
  4. Boggs, Andrew, and David Trick. 2009. Making college-University cooperation work: Ontario in a national and international context. Toronto: Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario.Google Scholar
  5. Bragg, Debra D. 2002. Contemporary vocational models and programs: What the research tells us. New Directions for Community Colleges 2002 (117): 25–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. British Columbia. 2008. B.C. Reg. 220/2008. In Designation of special purpose, teaching Universities regulation. Victoria: Queen’s Printer.Google Scholar
  7. Brunett, Tim, Jessica Bukovac, and Julie Norman. 2012. Exploring Canadian-American cross-border articulation in southwestern Ontario. Toronto: ONCAT. http://www.oncat.ca//files_docs/content/pdf/en/oncat_research_reports/2012-20-Windsor-Exploring-Canadian-American-Cross-Border-Articulation-in-South-Western-Ontario.pdf. Accessed 9 June 2016.
  8. Burning Glass Technologies. 2014. Moving the goalposts: How demand for a bachelor’s degree is reshaping the American workforce. Boston: Author. http://burning-glass.com/wp-content/uploads/Moving_the_Goalposts.pdf. Accessed 1 June 2016.
  9. Campbell, Gordon. 1971. Community Colleges in Canada. Toronto: Ryerson Press Mc-Graw-Hill.Google Scholar
  10. Capelli, Peter. 2015. Will college pay off? A guide to the most important financial decision you’ll ever make. New York: Public Affairs.Google Scholar
  11. Chase, Megan M. 2011. Benchmarking equity in transfer policies for career and technical associate’s degrees. Community College Review 39: 376–404.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0091552111423966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Clark, Ian D., Greg Moran, Michael L. Skolnik, and David Trick. 2009. Academic transformation: The forces reshaping higher education in Ontario. Kingston: McGill–Queen’s University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Cohen, Arthur M., Florence B. Brawer, and Carrie B. Kisker. 2014. The American community college. 6th ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  14. Colleges Ontario. 2009. Student mobility between Ontario’s Colleges and Universities. Toronto: Author.Google Scholar
  15. Colleges Ontario. 2015. Opening doors to nursing degrees: Time for action. Toronto: Author.Google Scholar
  16. Community College Research Center. 2015. What we know about transfer. New York: Community College Research Center, Teacher’s College, Columbia University. http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/media/k2/attachments/what-we-know-about-transfer.pdf. Accessed 9 June 2016.
  17. Decock, Henry. 2006. A case study analysis of Ontario CAAT graduates who transfer to a University. PhD thesis, University of Toronto.Google Scholar
  18. Decock, Henry, and Ursula McCloy. 2015. Recent trends in student mobility in Ontario: Implications for policy and practice. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of Colleges and Institutes Canada, Winnipeg, 24–26 May. https://wwwadmin.senecacollege.ca/mobilityresearch/CICAN-may-2015.pdf. Accessed 20 June 2016.
  19. Decock, Henry, Ursula McCloy, and Mitchell Steffler. The changing patterns of college-to-University transfer. Toronto: Centre for Research in Student Mobility, Seneca College. http://www.senecacollege.ca/mobilityresearch/The-Changing-Patterns-of-College-to-University-Transfer-Examination-of-the-Graduate-Satisfaction-Survey-since-2006-07.pdf. Accessed 11 Nov 2016.
  20. Dennison, John D., and Paul Gallagher. 1986. Canada’s Community Colleges: A critical analysis. Vancouver: UBC Press.Google Scholar
  21. Dougherty, Kevin J. 1994. The contradictory college: The conflicting origins, impacts, and futures of the Community College. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  22. Ellis, Gary. 2005. Inter-institutional collaboration in Ontario higher education: A case study of the diploma-degree justice studies program at the University of Guelph-Humber. PhD thesis, University of Toronto.Google Scholar
  23. Fachhochschule Council. 2013. Guidelines of the Fachhochschule Council for the accreditation of bachelor’s, master’s and diploma programs. http://www.fhr.ac.at/fhr_inhalt_en/00_documents/AR_08102010_Version1.1.-en.pdf. Accessed 5 Sept 2013.
  24. Flexner, Abraham. 1968. Universities: American, English, German. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Floyd, Deborah L. 2005. The Community College baccalaureate in the U.S.: Models, programs and issues. In The Community College baccalaureate: Emerging trends and policy issues, ed. Deborah L. Floyd, Michael L. Skolnik, and Kenneth P. Walker, 25–47. Sterling: Stylus Publishing, LLC.Google Scholar
  26. Frenette, Marc. 2003. Access to college and University: Does distance matter? Ottawa: Statistics Canada. http://publications.gc.ca/Collection/Statcan/11F0019MIE/11F0019MIE2003201.pdf. Accessed 6 June 2016.
  27. Garrod, Neil, and Bruce Macfarlane. 2009. Further, higher, better? In Challenging boundaries: Managing the integration of postsecondary education, ed. Neil Garrod, and Bruce Macfarlane, 3–12. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  28. Hanna, Glenn. 2016. Bridging the educational binary divide: A case study in the sustainability of inter-institutional relationships. PhD thesis, Nipissing University.Google Scholar
  29. Karandjeff, Kelley, and Eva Schiorring. 2011. Career and technical education (CTE) transfer research project: Improving transfer pathways for California college students in CTE programs. Journal of Applied Research in the Community College 18: 42–51.Google Scholar
  30. Lakehead University. 2016. College transfer program. https://www.lakeheadu.ca/academics/faculties/engineering/college-transfer-program. Accessed 4 June 2016.
  31. Lang, Daniel W. 2009. Articulation, transfer, and student choice in a binary postsecondary system. Higher Education 57: 355–371.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-008-9151-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lennon, Mary Catherine, Amanda Brijmohan, Eric Lavigne, Jinli Yang, Gavin Moodie, and Leesa Wheelahan. 2016. Ontario student mobility: Carving paths of desire. Toronto: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto.Google Scholar
  33. Lorenzo, Albert L. 2005. The University center: A collaborative approach to baccalaureate degrees. In The Community College baccalaureate: Emerging trends and policy issues, ed. Deborah L. Floyd, Michael L. Skolnik, and Kenneth P. Walker, 73–93. Sterling: Stylus Publishing, LLC.Google Scholar
  34. MacEwan University. 2016. Bachelor of child and youth care http://www.macewan.ca/wcm/SchoolsFaculties/HCS/Programs/BachelorofChildandYouthCare/index.htm. Accessed 1 June 2016.
  35. Monaghan, David B., and Paul Attewell. 2015. The Community College route to the bachelor’s degree. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 37: 70–91.  https://doi.org/10.3102/0162373714521865.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Moodie, Gavin. 2009. Australia: The emergence of dual sector Universities. In Challenging boundaries: Managing the integration of post-secondary education, ed. N. Garrod and B. Macfarlane, 59–76. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  37. OECD. 2014. Skills beyond school: Synthesis report, OECD reviews of vocational education & training. Paris: Author.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. OECD. 2015. Education at a glance 2015: OECD Indicators. Paris: Author.Google Scholar
  39. Ontario Universities Application Centre. (2016). Collaborative University and college programs. http://www.ouac.on.ca/docs/undergrad/collab_b.pdf. Accessed 2 June 2016.
  40. Penn State University. 2016. 2 + 2 plan. http://admissions.psu.edu/pennstate/2plus2plan/. Accessed 6 June 2016.
  41. Pitman, Walter. 1993. No dead ends. Report of the task force on advanced training to the minister of education and training. Toronto: Ministry of Education and Training.Google Scholar
  42. Prather, James E., and Christina E. Carlson. 1993. When four-year and Community Colleges collide: Studies in planning for enrollment maximization. Presented at the Annual Forum of the Association of Institutional Research, Chicago. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED356812. http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED356812. Accessed 9 June 2016.
  43. R.A. Malatest & Associates. 2010. Evaluation of degrees in applied areas of study. Final report. Toronto: Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities.Google Scholar
  44. R.A. Malatest & Associates. 2013. Analysis and assessment of collaborative nursing partnerships. Phase I report. Toronto: Author.Google Scholar
  45. Raby, Rosalind Latiner. 2009. Defining the Community College model. In Community College models: Globalization and higher education reform, ed. Rosalind Latiner Raby and Edward J. Valeau, 3–19. Dordecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Russell, Anne. 2014. UFV and NVIT combine to offer ‘capstone’ degree to addictions worker students. UFV Today. http://blogs.ufv.ca/blog/2014/01/ufv-and-nvit-combine-to-offer-capstone-degree-to-addictions-worker-students/. Accessed 6 June 2016.
  47. Ruud, Collin M., and Debra D. Bragg. 2011. The applied baccalaureate: What we know, what we learned, and what we need to know. Urbana-Champaign: Office of Community College Research and Leadership, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. http://occrl.illinois.edu/docs/librariesprovider4/ab/ab-what-we-know. Accessed 13 June 2016.
  48. Shields, Nancy. 2004. Understanding place-bound students: Correlates and consequences of limited educational opportunities. Social Psychology of Education 7: 353–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Skolnik, Michael L. 2013. Reflections on the nature and status of the applied baccalaureate degree. In Alternative pathways to the baccalaureate, ed. N. Remington and R. Remington, 128–147. Sterling: Stylus Publishing, LLC.Google Scholar
  50. Skolnik, Michael L. 2016a. Situating Ontario’s Colleges between the American and European models for providing opportunity for the attainment of baccalaureate degrees in applied fields of study. Canadian Journal of Higher Education 46: 38–56.Google Scholar
  51. Skolnik, Michael L. 2016b. What does the decline in the international ranking of the United States in educational attainment mean for Community Colleges? Community College Journal of Research and Practice 40: 310–326.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10668926.2015.1113148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Slantcheva-Durst, Snejana. 2010. Redefining short-cycle higher education across Europe: The challenges of Bologna. Community College Review 38: 111–132.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0091552110384610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Smith, Richard, Henry Decock, Sylvia Lin, Robindra Sidhu, and Ursula McCloy. 2016. Transfer pathways in postsecondary education: York University and Seneca College as a case study. Toronto: Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario.Google Scholar
  54. Steffler, Mitchell, Ursula McCloy, and Henry Decock. 2015. Movement of Ontario college graduates pursuing University out-of-province. Paper presented at the Pan-Canadian Consortium on Admissions & Transfer Annual Conference, Windsor, 24–25 June.Google Scholar
  55. Taylor, James S., José Brites Ferreira, Maria de Lourdes Machado, and Rui Santiago. 2008. Non-University higher education in Europe. Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Townsend, Barbara K. 2001. Blurring the lines: Transforming terminal education to transfer education. New Directions for Community Colleges 2001 (115): 63–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Townsend, Barbara K., Debra D. Bragg, and Collin M. Ruud. 2009. Development of the applied baccalaureate. Community College Journal of Research and Practice 33: 686–705.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10668920902983601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. University of Guelph-Humber. 2016. 2016–2017 Guelph-HYumber Calendar. https://www.uoguelph.ca/registrar/calendars/guelphhumber/current/pdffiles/c02.pdf. Accessed 2 June 2016.
  59. University of Ontario Institute of Technology Act. 2002. S.O. 2002, Chapter 8, Schedule O. https://www.uoit.ca/about/governance/board-of-governors/uoit-act.php. Accessed 6 June 2016.
  60. University of South Carolina. 2016. Palmetto College. http://www.sc.edu/about/system_and_campuses/palmetto_college/index.php. Accessed 1 June 2016.
  61. Vancouver Island University. 2016. Program and course calendar: Child and youth care diploma. https://calendar.viu.ca/human-services/child-and-youth-care-diploma. Accessed 1 June 2016.
  62. Wheelahan, Leesa, Gavin Moodie, Stephen Billet, and A. Ann Kelly. 2009. Higher education in TAFE. Adelaide: National Centre for Vocational Education.Google Scholar
  63. Wilson, David N. 2009. Reverse transfer: Constraints upon planning postsecondary education programs in Ontario, Canada. In Community College models: Globalization and higher education reform, ed. Rosalind Latiner Raby and Edward J. Valeau, 401–415. Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ontario Institute for Studies in EducationUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations