Amphiphilic Lipids, Signaling Molecules, and Quorum Sensing
Many bacteria communicate with each other through the action of diffusible signal molecules, a process that has been termed quorum sensing (QS). QS acts to regulate diverse processes in different bacteria, to include the formation of biofilms, cellular differentiation, synthesis of antibiotics and other secondary metabolites, and the production of virulence factors in pathogens. Many bacteria use amphiphilic lipids of different chemical classes as signal molecules. N-acyl homoserine lactones, cis-2-unsaturated fatty acids, methyl esters of hydroxylated fatty acids, and tridecanone derivatives have been described in different Gram-negative organisms and gamma-butyrolactones in Gram-positive streptomycetes. A diverse range of mechanisms for perception and transduction of these signals has been described. Here we review these different signals, their mode of biosynthesis, and transduction pathways before going on to discuss interference of QS as a strategy for the control of bacterial disease.
- Caserta R, Picchi SC, Takita MA, Tomaz JP, Pereira WE, Machado MA, Ionescu M, Lindow S, De Souza AA (2014) Expression of Xylella fastidiosa RpfF in citrus disrupts signaling in Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri and thereby its virulence. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 27:1241–1252CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Curtis MM, Russell R, Moreira CG, Adebesin AM, Wang C, Williams NS, Taussig R, Stewart D, Zimmern P, Lu B, Prasad RN, Zhu C, Rasko DA, Huntley JF, Falck JR, Sperandio V (2014) QseC inhibitors as an antivirulence approach for gram-negative pathogens. MBio 5:e02165CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Deng Y, Schmid N, Wang C, Wang J, Pessi G, Wu D, Lee J, Aguilar C, Ahrens CH, Chang C, Song H, Eberl L, Zhang LH (2012) Cis-2-dodecenoic acid receptor RpfR links quorum-sensing signal perception with regulation of virulence through cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate turnover. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:15479–15484CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Schenk ST, Hernández-Reyes C, Samans B, Stein E, Neumann C, Schikora M, Reichelt M, Mithöfer A, Becker A, Kogel KH, Schikora A (2014) N-acyl-homoserine lactone primes plants for cell wall reinforcement and induces resistance to bacterial pathogens via the salicylic acid/oxylipin pathway. Plant Cell 26:2708–2723CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar