Encyclopedia of Coastal Science

Living Edition
| Editors: Charles W. Finkl, Christopher Makowski


  • Robert R. StickneyEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-48657-4_9-2

Definition and History

Aquaculture can be most simply defined as underwater agriculture. It is the rearing of aquatic plants and animals through some type of intervention by humans. Aquaculture is conducted in freshwater and saltwater. The term mariculture is often used in relation to marine aquaculture. Aquaculture involves plants and animals produced for human food, as ornamentals, for bait, and in recent years, as sources of nutritional supplements and pharmaceuticals. Some plants and animals are also grown as foods for other aquaculture species. For example, shrimp hatcheries typically grow one or more species of algae to feed brine shrimp (Artemia salina), which are fed upon by larval shrimp.

While there is some production of rooted aquatic plants,echinoderms (e.g., sea cucumbers), tunicates (e.g., sea squirts), amphibians (frogs), and reptiles (turtles and alligators), the majority of the world’s aquaculture production comes from seaweeds, molluscs (e.g., abalone, clams, oysters,...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Avault JW Jr (1996) Fundamentals of aquaculture. AVA Press, Baton RougeGoogle Scholar
  2. Avault JW Jr, Shell EW (1968) Preliminary studies with the hybrid tilapia Tilapia nilotica×Tilapia mossambica. FAO Fish Rep 44:237–242Google Scholar
  3. Borgese EM (1977) Seafarm. Harry N. Abrams, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. D’Abramo LR, Conklin DE, Akiyama DM (eds) (1997) Crustacean nutrition. Advances in world aquaculture, vol 6. World Aquaculture Society, Baton RougeGoogle Scholar
  5. FAO (1998) Aquaculture production statistics 1987–1996. FAO fisheries circular no. 815, review 10. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  6. Kirk RR (1987) A history of marine fish culture in Europe and North America. Fishing News Books, FarnhamGoogle Scholar
  7. New M (1999) Global aquaculture: current trends and challenges for the 21st century. World Aquacult 30(1):8ffGoogle Scholar
  8. Parametrix (1990) Fish culture in floating net pens. Washington Department of Fisheries, OlympiaGoogle Scholar
  9. Stickney RR (1990) Controversies in salmon aquaculture and projections for the future of the aquaculture industry. In Proceedings of the fourth pacific congress on Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo, Japan, July 16–20. PACON, Tokyo, pp 455–461.Google Scholar
  10. Stickney RR (1994) Principles of aquaculture. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. Stickney RR (1996) Aquaculture in the United States. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. Swingle HS (1956) Preliminary results on the commercial production of channel catfish in ponds. Proc Annu Conf Southeast Game Fish Comm 10:63–72Google Scholar
  13. Swingle HS (1958) Experiments on growing fingerling channel catfish to marketable size in ponds. Proc Annu Conf Southeast Game Fish Comm 12:63–72Google Scholar
  14. Wellborn TL, Tucker CS (1985) An overview of commercial cat-fish culture. In: Tucker CS (ed) Channel catfish culture. Elsevier, New York, pp 1–12Google Scholar
  15. Wilson RP (ed) (1991) Handbook of nutrient requirements of finfish. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Texas Sea Grant College ProgramCollege StationUSA