Encyclopedia of Coastal Science

Living Edition
| Editors: Charles W. Finkl, Christopher Makowski

Arctic, Coastal Ecology

  • Jean-François HamelEmail author
  • Annie Mercier
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-48657-4_12-2
Unlike Antarctica, which is an ice-covered continental plateau surrounded by oceans, the Arctic is made up of a central ocean nearly enclosed by land. This entry will mainly focus on the coastal ecology of the Canadian Arctic (Nunavut and Northwest Territories), northern Alaska (United States), Norway, Greenland, and Iceland, as well as the islands of the Barents, Kara, Laptev, and Siberian seas (Fig. 1). The intertidal zone, the benthic, and pelagic subtidal communities and the ecosystems associated with the ice itself will be discussed, as well as the ecological importance of polynyas, which are characteristic habitats of the Arctic.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Bibliography

  1. Alexander V (1980) Interrelationship between the seasonal sea ice and biological regimes. Cold Reg Sci Technol 2:157–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bazely DR, Jefferies RL (1997) Trophic interactions in arctic ecosystems and the occurrence of a terrestrial trophic cascade. In: Woodin SJ, Marquiss M (eds) Ecology of Arctic environments. Special publication no. 13 of the British Ecological Society. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 183–207Google Scholar
  3. Bluhm BA, Piepenburg D, Juterzenka KV (1998) Distribution, standing stock, growth, mortality and production of Strongylocentrotus pallidus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) in the northern Barents Sea. Polar Biol 20:325–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Broad AC (1982) Arctic, coastal ecology. In: Schwartz ML (ed) The encyclopedia of beaches and coastal environments. Hutchinson Ross, Stroudsburg, pp 55–57Google Scholar
  5. Dunbar MJ (1989) The Arctic Ocean as a biological environment. In: Proceedings of the sixth conference of the Comité Arctique international. E.J. Brill, Leiden, pp 35–47Google Scholar
  6. Gambell R (1989) Status of the cetaceans populations of the Arctic and Subarctic Seas. In: Proceedings of the sixth conference of the Comité Arctique international. E.J. Brill, Leiden, pp 207–251Google Scholar
  7. Gislason A, Astthorsson OS (1998) Seasonal variations in biomass, abundance and composition of zooplankton in the subarctic waters North of Iceland. Polar Biol 20:85–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Grainger EH (1989) Vertical distribution of zooplankton in the Central Arctic Ocean. In: Proceedings of the sixth conference of the Comité Arctique international. E.J. Brill, Leiden, pp 48–60Google Scholar
  9. Holte B, Gulliksen B (1998) Common macrofaunal dominant species in the sediments of some north Norwegian and Svalbard glacial fjords. Polar Biol 19:375–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Horsted SA (1989) Some features of oceanographic and biological conditions in Greenland waters. In: Proceedings of the sixth conference of the Comité Arctique international. E.J. Brill, Leiden, pp 456–476Google Scholar
  11. Jorgensen LL, Pearson TH, Anisimova NA, Gulliksen B, Dahle S, Denisenko SG, Matishov GG (1999) Environmental influences on benthic fauna associations of the Kara Sea (Arctic Russia). Polar Biol 22:395–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kosobokova KN, Hanssen H, Hirche H-J, Knickmeier K (1997) Composition and distribution of zooplankton in the Laptev Sea and adjacent Nansen Bassin during summer 1993. Polar Biol 19:63–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Loeng H (1989) Ecological features of the Barents Sea. In: Proceedings of the sixth conference of the Comité Arctique international. E.J. Brill, Leiden, pp 327–365Google Scholar
  14. Mansfield AW (1975) Marine ecology in Arctic Canada. In: Circumpolar conference on Northern ecology. Ottawa, National Research Council of Canada pp 29–47Google Scholar
  15. Maxwell B (1997) Recent climate patterns in the Arctic. In: Oechel WC, Callaghan T, Gilmanov T, Holten JI, Maxwell B, Molau U, Sveinbjornsson B (eds) Global change and Arctic terrestrial ecosystems. Springer, New York, pp 21–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Mehlum F (1997) Seabird species associations and affinities to areas covered with sea ice in the northern Greenland and Barents Seas. Polar Biol 18:116–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Mel’nikov IA (1980) The ecosystem of Arctic Pack Ice. Biol. Tsentral’nogo Akticheskogo Basseina, Transl. Dept. Sec. Can. Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Arctic Biological Station, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  18. Menzies RJ (1975) Origin and evolution of the Arctic marine ecosystem. In: Circumpolar conference on Northern ecology. Ottawa, National Research Council of Canada pp 15–25Google Scholar
  19. Munda IM (1991) Shoreline ecology in Iceland, with special emphasis on the benthic algal vegetation. In: Mathieson AC, Nienhuis PH (eds) Intertidal and littoral ecosystems. Ecosystems of the world, vol 24. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 67–81Google Scholar
  20. Poltermann M (1998) Abundance, biomass and small-scale distribution of cryopelagic amphipods in the Franz Josef Land area (Arctic). Polar Biol 20:375–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Sakshaug E (1989) The physiological ecology of polar phytoplankton. In: Proceedings of the sixth conference of the Comité Arctique International. E.J. Brill, Leiden, pp 61–89Google Scholar
  22. Stirling I (1997) The importance of polynyas, ice edges, and leads to marine mammals and birds. J Mar Syst 10:9–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Strömberg J-O (1989) Northern Svalbard waters. In: Proceedings of the sixth conference of the Comité Arctique International. E.J. Brill, Leiden, pp 402–425Google Scholar
  24. Werner I, Arbizu PM (1999) The sub-ice fauna of the Laptev Sea and the adjacent Arctic Ocean in summer 1995. Polar Biol 21:71–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Zenkevitch L (1963) Biology of the seas of the USSR. Wiley Interscience, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Society for the Exploration and Valuing of the Environment (SEVE)QuebecCanada