Encyclopedia of Animal Cognition and Behavior

Living Edition
| Editors: Jennifer Vonk, Todd Shackelford

Adaptation

  • Tripta Jain
  • Mukesh MeenaEmail author
  • Tansukh Barupal
  • Kuldeep Sharma
  • Deepali Chittora
  • Kanika Sharma
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-47829-6_392-1

Synonyms

Definition

Adaptation can be defined as alterations/changes in physiological, behavioral, and structural characters of an individual in response to their environment.

Introduction

Adaptation consists of Latin words ad (“toward”) plus aptus (“fit for some role”); any structural, physiological, or behavioral character that increases organism’s survival fitness as well as their reproduction ability in existing environment. In other words, adaptation is the ability of any living organism to survive and reproduce successfully under the existing environment.

Adapted organisms are more fit because they are (1) able to secure food and nutrients; (2) able to obtain air and water; (3) secure spaces in niche; (4) cope with physical conditions such as temperature, light, and heat; (5) defend themselves from their predators; (6) reproduce and rear offspring; and (7) quickly...

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References

  1. Fisher, R. (1930). The genetical theory of natural selection. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Gillespie, J. (1991). The causes of molecular evolution. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Orr, H. (1998). The population genetics of adaptation: The distribution of factors fixed during adaptive evolution. Evolution, 52, 935–949.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Pianka, E. R. (2000). Evolutionary ecology (6th ed.). San Francisco: Addison-Wesley-Longman.Google Scholar
  5. Schmidt-Nielsen, K. (1972). Recent advances in the comparative physiology of desert animals. In G. M. O. Maloiy (Ed.), Comparative physiology of desert animals (pp. 371–382). London: Academic.Google Scholar
  6. Shukla, R. S., & Chandel, P. S. (1996). Evolution: Cytogenetics and evolution and plant breeding. New Delhi: S. Chand and Company Ltd.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tripta Jain
    • 1
  • Mukesh Meena
    • 1
    Email author
  • Tansukh Barupal
    • 1
  • Kuldeep Sharma
    • 1
  • Deepali Chittora
    • 1
  • Kanika Sharma
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BotanyUniversity College of Science, Mohanlal Sukhadia UniversityUdaipurIndia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Khalil Iskarous
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA