Fission-fusion is a property of many animal groups that split in temporary aggregations or subgroups. First described in hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas; Kummer 1971), it has been found in an ever-larger number of species, including elephants, hyenas, dolphins, chimpanzees, and several other primates. Fission-fusion dynamics, as the term is currently used, consist of the temporal variation in the spatial cohesion between group members, who form subgroups that can also vary in size and composition over time, due to splitting and coming together with other subgroups. Because different species show a different extent of temporal variation in these three dimensions (spatial cohesion, subgroup size, and subgroup composition), they can be characterized by their degree of fission-fusion dynamics (Aureli et al. 2008). Resulting in part from the benefits of foraging in variable environments, these dynamics are an important part of...
- Aureli, F., Schaffner, C. M., Boesch, C., Bearder, S. K., Call, J., Chapman, C. A., Connor, R., Di Fiore, A., Dunbar, R. I. M., Henzi, S. P., Holekamp, K., Korstjens, A. H., Layton, R., Lee, P., Lehmann, J., Manson, J. H., Ramos-Fernandez, G., Strier, K. B., & van Schaik, C. P. (2008). Fission-fusion dynamics: New research frameworks. Current Anthropology, 49(4), 627–654.Google Scholar
- Bradbury, J. W. (2003). Vocal communication in wild parrots. In F. B. M. de Waal & P. L. Tyack (Eds.), Animal social complexity: Intelligence, culture, and individualized societies (pp. 293–316). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Farine, D. R., Strandburg-Peshkin, A., Couzin, I. D., Berger-Wolf, T. Y., & Crofoot, M. C. (2017). Individual variation in local interaction rules can explain emergent patterns of spatial organization in wild baboons. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 284(1853), 20162243.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Humphrey, N. (1976). The social function of intellect. In P. P. G. Bateson & R. A. Hinde (Eds.), Growing points in ethology (pp. 303–317). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Kummer, H. (1971). Primate societies: Group techniques of ecological adaptation. Chicago: Aldine-Atherton.Google Scholar
- Pinacho-Guendulain & Ramos-Fernandez (2017). Influence of food availability on the fission-fusion dynamics of spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi). International Journal of Primatology, 38, 466–484.Google Scholar
- Schaffner C.M., Rebecchini L., Ramos-Fernandez G., Vick L.G. and Aureli F. (2012). Spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi yucatenensis) cope with the negative consequences of hurricanes through changes in diet, activity budget and fission-fusion dynamics. International Journal of Primatology 33, 922–936.CrossRefGoogle Scholar