Oil Biodegradation in Deep Marine Basins

Living reference work entry
Part of the Handbook of Hydrocarbon and Lipid Microbiology book series (HHLM)

Abstract

Nine important hydrocarbon (oil) basins where offshore petroleum leases have been licensed are compared. These nine basins (Gulf of Mexico, Eastern Mediterranean’s Nile Deep-Sea Fan, Central Mediterranean and the Sirte Basin, North Sea, Caspian Sea, Angola, Trinidad and Tobago, Great Australian Bight, and Brazil’s Amazonian Deep-Sea Basin) are geographically separated and are impacted by very different water masses. The geochemical parameters of these basins are quite distinct, for example, salinities ranging from 39 psu in the Eastern Mediterranean to 12 psu in the Caspian. Additionally, parameters like temperatures of the bottom water are also very distinct, with the temperature in the deep water of the Eastern Mediterranean being between 12 °C and 14 °C and the temperature of the deep water in the North Sea being −2 °C. Each basin represents a unique ecosystem in which distinct microbes may thrive. These distinct environmental parameters may act to constrain the extent of hydrocarbon degradation in these basins. Another potential constraint on hydrocarbon degradation is the extent of natural hydrocarbon seeps in the area. Though many basins have similar if not 16S rRNA identical strains of oil-degrading bacteria, Colwellia psychrerythraea from different basins showed that a mixture of natural selection and neutral evolution has contributed to the divergence of these. Most if not all deep ocean basin microbial communities are dominated by Thaumarchaeota below 200 m. These microaerophilic, ammonium oxidizer, psychrophiles are very adapted to an oligotrophic lifestyle, and though many in this group will degrade oil, they are rapidly outcompeted by other bacteria in oil or high hydrocarbon intrusions, thus the virtual “canary in the coal mine.” Cometabolic biodegradation of oil is well documented but could be an important natural attenuation mechanism for oil in deep marine basins with episodic methane seeps. Microbial community structure can also predict concentrations of oil in deep basins. Many other synergistic effects require more research in environmental systems biology in deep marine basins.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Microbiology, Earth & Planetary Sciences & Institute for Secure and Sustainable EnvironmentsUniversity of TennesseeKnoxvilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Biological SciencesMichigan Technological UniversityHoughtonUSA

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