Central Hypogonadism in the Male: Physiopathology, Diagnosis, and Treatment

  • Julia Rohayem
  • Eberhard Nieschlag
Reference work entry
Part of the Endocrinology book series (ENDOCR)


The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis coordinates two functions essential for male reproductive capacity: synthesis and secretion of sex steroid hormones, primarily testosterone, and production of spermatozoa. Our understanding of the physiologic principles of male reproductive health have substantially increased in recent years, enabling physicians not only to identify genetic causes of hypogonadism among a wide spectrum of possible disorders, but also to establish therapeutic strategies. Men with hypothalamic or pituitary disorders nowadays have an excellent prognosis for fertility restoration and for paternity by natural intercourse or using assisted reproductive techniques.


Central hypogonadism Secondary hypogonadism Tertiary hypogonadism Functional hypogonadism GnRH LH FSH GnRH replacement hCG/rFSH replacement Gonadotropin replacement 


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center of Reproductive Medicine and AndrologyUniversity of MünsterMünsterGermany

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