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Nano Fibrous Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering Application

  • Sakthivel Nagarajan
  • S. Narayana Kalkura
  • Sebastien Balme
  • Celine Pochat Bohatier
  • Philippe Miele
  • Mikhael Bechelany
Living reference work entry

Abstract

Regeneration of damaged or malfunctioning tissues or organs is important goal of tissue engineering. Various techniques such as cell sheet engineering, cell spheroids, scaffold assisted methods and 3D printing of the cells with polymers have been tested in tissue engineering. Among these techniques, scaffold assisted method is extensively employed as it acts as a supporting matrix for the cells, providing suitable microenvironment to facilitate the cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation. In this context, designing scaffolds which mimics extracellular matrix (ECM) is essential to regenerate the damaged tissues and organs. The electrospinning technique is a versatile tool to fabricate ECM mimicking scaffolds. ECMs obtained using this technique are highly desired due to their excellent physical properties such as high surface area. High surface area assists in immobilizing bulk quantity of biomolecules like growth factors, enzymes, and drugs which provide favorable microenvironment to cells. Hence, the electrospinning is a suitable tool in regenerative tissue engineering. This chapter discusses about the importance of electrospun polymer fibers for regeneration of various tissues including bone, cartilage, heart muscles, liver and neural tissues. Influence of properties such as surface chemistry, mechanical properties and porosity on gene expression of stem cell will be addressed. The impact of biomolecule immobilization, electrospun fiber size, fiber orientation and fiber morphology on stem cell differentiation is also discussed. The performance of biopolymer and synthetic degradable polymer based electrospun fibers in tissue engineering will also be briefly reported.

Keywords

Scaffolds Regenerative tissue engineering Biopolymers Drug delivery 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sakthivel Nagarajan
    • 1
    • 2
  • S. Narayana Kalkura
    • 2
  • Sebastien Balme
    • 1
  • Celine Pochat Bohatier
    • 1
  • Philippe Miele
    • 1
    • 3
  • Mikhael Bechelany
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of European Membranes (IEM)University of MontpellierMontpellierFrance
  2. 2.Crystal Growth CentreAnna UniversityChennaiIndia
  3. 3.Institut Universitaire de France (IUF)MESRIParisFrance

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