Different Methods for Nanofiber Design and Fabrication

  • Ibrahim Alghoraibi
  • Sandy Alomari
Living reference work entry


Over the past few years, there has been a tremendous increase in the demand for polymeric nanofibers which are promising candidates for various applications including tissue engineering, blood vessels, nervous system, drug delivery, protective clothing, filtration, and sensors. To address this demand, researchers have turned to the development of various techniques such as several non-electrospinning and several electrospinning techniques for the fabrication of nanofibers. In this chapter, a comprehensive and systematic review covering all the techniques used to produce nanofibers have been discussed. Some of the techniques include drawing techniques, spinneret-based tunable engineered parameter (STEP) method, phase separation, self-assembly, template synthesis, freeze-drying synthesis, and interfacial polymerization of nanofibers. The electrospinning technique is well referenced for its effectiveness in the production of nanofibers. The past two decades have witnessed the development of the traditional electrospinning technique, and many derivative methods have been emerged such as multi-jet electrospinning, needleless electrospinning, bubble electrospinning, electro-blowing, cylindrical porous hollow tube electrospinning, melt electrospinning, coaxial electrospinning, forcespinning, flash-spinning, self-bundling electrospinning, nanospider electrospinning, charge injection electrospinning, etc.

This chapter also highlights some of the advantages and disadvantages of each production process. In addition, schematic diagrams of various methods for nanofiber production and the features of nanofibers that can be produced using each technique are illustrated.


Nanofibers Electrospinning Electrospraying Bubble electrospinning Drawing Phase separation Self assembly Template synthesis Freez drying Interfacial polymerization Electroblowing 


  1. 1.
    Nayak R, Padhye R, Kyratzis IL, Truong YB, Arnold L (2011) Recent advances in nanofibre fabrication techniques. Text Res J 82(2):129–147. Scholar
  2. 2.
    Beachley V, Wen X (2010) Polymer nanofibrous structures: fabrication, biofunctionalization and cell interactions. Prog Polym Sci J 35(7):868–892. Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ramakrishna S, Fujihara K, Teo W-E, Lim T-C, Ma Z (eds) (2005) An introduction to electrospinning and nanofibers. World Scientific Publishing, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Li W-J, Shanti RM, Tuan RS (2006) Electrospinning technology for nanofibrous scaffolds in tissue engineering. Nanotechnologies Life Sci 9:135–186Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gupta P (2004) Processing-structure-property studies of: I) Submicron polymeric fibers produced by electrospinning and II) Films of linear low density polyethylenes as influenced by the short chain branch length in copolymers of ethylene/1-butene, ethylene/1-hexene & ethylene/1-octene synthesized by a single site metallocene catalyst, thesis, Chemical Engineering department, University of New Hampshire Country, USAGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Molnár K Vas LM (2012) Electrospun composite nanofibers and polymer composites. In: Bhattacharyya D, Fakirov S (eds) Synthetic polymer polymer composites Carl, 1st edn. Hanser Verlag GmbH & Co. KG, Budapest, Hungary, pp 301–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    He J-H, Liu Y, Mo L-F, Wan Y-Q, Xu L (eds) (2008) Electrospun nanofibres and their applications. iSmithers, UKGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zhiqiang S, Ding J, Wei G (2014) Electrospinning: a facile technique for fabricating polymeric nanofibers doped with carbon nanotubes and metallic nanoparticles for sensor applications. R Soc Chem 94:51838–52610. Scholar
  9. 9.
    Shi X, Zhou W, Ma D, Ma Q, Bridges D, Ma Y, Hu A (2015) Electrospinning of nanofibers and their applications for energy devices. J Nanomater 2015:140716. Scholar
  10. 10.
    Liu H, Ding X, Zhou G, Li P, Wei X, Fan Y (2013) Electrospinning of nanofibers for tissue engineering applications. J Nanomater 2013:495708. Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lu T, Li Y, Chen T (2013) Techniques for fabrication and construction of three-dimensional scaffolds for tissue engineering. Int J Nanomedicine 8:337–350. Scholar
  12. 12.
    Thakkar S, Misra M (2017) Electrospun polymeric nanofibers: new horizons in drug delivery. Eur J Pharm Sci 107:148–167. Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zhao Y, Qiu Y, Wang H, Yu C, Jin S, Chen S (2016) Preparation of nanofibers with renewable polymers and their application in wound dressing. Int J Polym Sci 2016:4672839. Scholar
  14. 14.
    Abdel-Hady F, Alzahrany A, Hamed M (2011) Experimental validation of upward electrospinning process. ISRN Nanotechnol 2011:851317. Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wyatt TP, Chien A-T, Kumar S, Yao D (2014) Development of a gel spinning process for high-strength poly (ethylene oxide). Polym Eng Sci.
  16. 16.
    Hamzeh S, Miraftab M, Yoosefinedaj (2014) A study of electrospun nanofiber formation process and their electrostatic analysis. J Ind Text 44(1):147–158. Scholar
  17. 17.
    Angammana CJ, Jayaram SH (2011) A theoretical understanding of the physical mechanisms of electrospinning. In: Proceedings of ESA annual meeting on electrostatics, pp 1–9Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Li Z, Wang C (2013) Effects of working parameters on electrospinning, one-dimensional nanostructures. Springer Briefs Mater.
  19. 19.
    Yamashita Y, Tanaka A, Ko F (2007) Characteristics of elastomeric nanofiber membranes produced by electrospinning. J Text Eng 53:137–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Vaseashta A (2007) Controlled formation of multiple Taylor cones in electrospinning process. Appl Phys Lett 90:093901. Scholar
  21. 21.
    Migliaresi C, Ruffo GA, Volpato FZ Zeni D (2012) Advanced electrospinning setups and special fibre and mesh morphologies. In: Neves NM (ed) Electrospinning for advanced biomedical applications and therapies. Smithersrapra, United Kingdom, pp 23–68Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Nazir A, Khenoussi N, Schacher L, Hussain T, Adolpheb D, Hekmatibc AH (2015) Using the Taguchi method to investigate the effect of different parameters on mean diameter and variation in PA-6 nanofibres produced by needleless electrospinning. R Soc Chem 5:76892–76897Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Niu H, Wang X, Lin T (2011) Needleless electrospinning: developments and performances. In: Lin T (ed) Nanofibers – production, properties and functional applications. InTech, Rijeka, pp 17–36Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Dosunmu OO, Chase GG, Kataphinan W, Reneker DH (2006) Electrospinning of polymer nanofibres from multiple jets on a porous tubular surface. Nanotechnology 17:1123–1127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Varabhas JS, Chase GG, Reneker DH (2008) Electrospun nanofibers from a porous hollow tube. Polymer 49:4226–4229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Abrigo M, McArthur SL, Kingshott P (2014) Electrospun nanofibers as dressings for chronic wound care: advances, challenges, and future prospects. Macromol Biosci 14:772–792. Scholar
  27. 27.
    Smolen J (2010) Emulsion electrospinning for producing dome-shaped structures within l-tyrosine polyurethane scaffolds for gene delivery. The Graduate Faculty of The University of Akron, USAGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zhang X, Lua Y (2014) Centrifugal spinning: an alternative approach to fabricate nanofibers at high speed and low cost. Polym Rev 54:677–701. Scholar
  29. 29.
    Luo CJ, Stoyanov SD, Stride E, Pelan E, Edirisinghe M (2012) Electrospinning versus fibre production methods: from specifics to technological convergence. R Soc Chem 41:4708–4735. Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hassan MA, Yeom BY, Wilkie A, Pourdeyhimi B, Khan SA (2013) Fabrication of nanofiber meltblown membranes and their filtration properties. J Membr Sci 427:336–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Yener F, Jirsak O (2012) Comparison between the needle and roller electrospinning of polyvinylbutyral. J Nanomater 2012:839317. Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sutka A, SilvijaKukle JG, Milašius R, Malašauskien J (2013) Nanofibre electrospinning poly (vinyl alcohol) and cellulose composite mats obtained by use of a cylindrical electrode. Adv Mater Sci Eng 2013:932636. Scholar
  33. 33.
    Thitiwongsawet P, Wisesanupong B, Pukkanasut S (2015) Electrospun gelatin fiber bundles by self-bundling electrospinning. Adv Mater Res 1105:190–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wang X, Zhang K, Zhu M, Yu H, Zhou Z, Chen Y, Hsiao BS (2008) Continuous polymer nanofiber yarns prepared by self-bundling electrospinning method. Polymer 49:2755–2761. Scholar
  35. 35.
    Zhang B, Xu Y, He H-W, Yu M, Ning X, Long Y-Z (2016) Solvent-free electrospinning: opportunities and challenges. Polym Chem.
  36. 36.
    Lourdes Muerza-Cascante M, Haylock D, Hutmacher DW, Dalton PD (2015) Melt electrospinning and its technologization. Tissue Eng Part B 21:187–202. Scholar
  37. 37.
    González Sánchez JA (2015) Study of nanofibers formed by magnetic field assisted electrospinning using solutions containing PVDF, DMF, acetone and Fe3O4 nanoparticles. University of puertorico college of natural sciences department of physics ríopiedras, Puerto RicoGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Liu Y, Zhang X, Xia Y, Yang H (2010) Magnetic-field-assisted electrospinning of aligned straight and wavy polymeric nanofibers. Adv Mater 22:2454–2457. Scholar
  39. 39.
    Salem DR (2007) Electrospinning of nanofibers and the charge injection method. In: Brown P, Stevens K (eds) Nanofibers and nanotechnology in textiles, 1st edn. Woodhead Publishing, USA, pp 3–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Antonsen MG (2014) Near-field electrospinning of embedded inorganic ZnO nanowires. Aalborg University, Institute of Physics and Nanotechnology, DenmarkGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kumar P (2012) Effect of collector on electrospinning to fabricate aligned nanofiber. Department of Biotechnology & Medical Engineering National Institute of Technology, RourkelaGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Zheng-Ming H, Zhang Y-Z, Kotaki M, Ramakrishna S (2003) A review on polymer nanofibers by electrospinning and their applications in nanocomposites. Compos Sci Technol 63:2223–2253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Simonet M, Schneider OD, Neuenschwander P, Stark WJ (2007) Ultra porous 3D polymer meshes by low-temperature electrospinning: use of ice crystals as a removable void template. Polym Eng Sci 47(12):2020–2026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Sautter BP (2005) Continuous polymer nanofibers using electrospinning. University of Illinois, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Wang J, Nain AS (2014) Suspended micro/nanofiber hierarchical biological scaffolds fabricated using non-electrospinning STEP technique. Langmuir 30(45):13641–13649. Scholar
  46. 46.
    Stojanovska E, Canbay E, Pampal ES, Calisir MD, Agma O, Polat Y, Simsek R, Serhat Gundogdu NA, Akgul Y, Kilic A (2016) A review on non-electro nanofibre spinning techniques. RSC Adv 87:83783–83801. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Physics DepartmentDamascus UniversityDamascusSyria
  2. 2.Faculty of Pharmacy Department, of Basic and Supporting SciencesArab International UniversityDamascusSyria

Personalised recommendations