Pathology of the Gastrointestinal Tract

2017 Edition
| Editors: Fátima Carneiro, Paula Chaves, Arzu Ensari

Esophageal Atresia

  • Tiago Henriques-CoelhoEmail author
  • Fátima Carneiro
Reference work entry


Atresia, upper GI; Congenital anomaly of the esophagus


Esophageal atresia (EA) is a congenital anomaly of the esophagus caused by an interruption of primitive foregut resulting in a proximal and a distal esophageal pouch. Usually, there is a tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF). The diagnosis is normally made in the first hours after birth by the impossibility to pass a feeding cannula into the stomach.

Symptoms: excessive salivation; regurgitation, choking, and coughing after the first feeding

Clinical Features

  • Incidence

    The reported incidence is 1:3,500 live-born infants, with some geographic variability. There is a higher prevalence in white mothers, first pregnancy, and increased maternal age.

  • Age

    Present at birth. Usually, without prenatal diagnosis but polyhydramnios and absence of stomach bubble can be present in the fetal ultrasound.

  • Sex

    Slight male predominance. Male-to-female ratios varied among types of EA.

  • Site

    Posterior mediastinum.

  • Treatment

    Treatment of EA...

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References and Further Reading

  1. de Jong, E. M., Felix, J. F., de Klein, A., & Tibboel, D. (2010). Etiology of esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula: “mind the gap”. Current Gastroenterology Reports, 12, 215–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Dutta, H. K., Mathur, M., & Bhatnagar, V. (2000). A histopathological study of esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula. Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 35(3), 438–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Harmon, C. M., & Coran, A. G. (2012). Chapter 69: Congenital anomalies of the esophagus. In A. G. Coran (Ed.), Pediatric surgery. Philadelphia: Elsevier/Saunders.Google Scholar
  4. Okamoto, T., Takamizawa, S., Arai, H., Bitoh, Y., Nakao, M., Yokoi, A., & Nishijima, E. (2009). Esophageal atresia: Prognostic classification revisited. Surgery, 145, 675–681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Zuccarello, B., Spada, A., Turiaco, N., Villari, D., Parisi, S., Francica, I., Fazzari, C., Pederiva, F., & Tovar, J. A. (2009). Intramural ganglion structures in esophageal atresia: A morphologic and immunohistochemical study. International Journal of Pediatrics, 2009, 695837.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PaediatricsUniversity of PortoPortoPortugal
  2. 2.Faculty of Medicine of Porto University, Centro Hospitalar São João and Ipatimup/i3SPortoPortugal