Atresia, upper GI; Congenital anomaly of the esophagus
Esophageal atresia (EA) is a congenital anomaly of the esophagus caused by an interruption of primitive foregut resulting in a proximal and a distal esophageal pouch. Usually, there is a tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF). The diagnosis is normally made in the first hours after birth by the impossibility to pass a feeding cannula into the stomach.
Symptoms: excessive salivation; regurgitation, choking, and coughing after the first feeding
The reported incidence is 1:3,500 live-born infants, with some geographic variability. There is a higher prevalence in white mothers, first pregnancy, and increased maternal age.
Present at birth. Usually, without prenatal diagnosis but polyhydramnios and absence of stomach bubble can be present in the fetal ultrasound.
Slight male predominance. Male-to-female ratios varied among types of EA.
Treatment of EA...
References and Further Reading
- Harmon, C. M., & Coran, A. G. (2012). Chapter 69: Congenital anomalies of the esophagus. In A. G. Coran (Ed.), Pediatric surgery. Philadelphia: Elsevier/Saunders.Google Scholar
- Zuccarello, B., Spada, A., Turiaco, N., Villari, D., Parisi, S., Francica, I., Fazzari, C., Pederiva, F., & Tovar, J. A. (2009). Intramural ganglion structures in esophageal atresia: A morphologic and immunohistochemical study. International Journal of Pediatrics, 2009, 695837.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar